"Live by God's Every Word"  Ma 4.4

Part 6 to "The OVERNIGHT Reemergence of Babylon the "GREAT CITY"

Must Babylon be "REPLACED" to Survive to the End Time?

Babylon of Chaldea has not been "Replaced" any more than Israel of Mt. Zion has been Replaced.
Babylon has a Biblical-Chaldean GPS Identification of 32.32º x 44.25º, which, with prophecies yet Unfulfilled,

excludes any other city as a Replacement Babylon.

see also

This whole 7-part series is Original Research using primary and secondary sources.     copyright bibleprophecyaswritten 2020

"the kings of the earth...saying ... ' the great city, Babylon, the strong city! ... such great wealth '

... all the nations were deceived by your sorcery."  (Revelation 18:9-10, 17, 23)


There were two (2) towns called Bethlehem in Israel. One was north in the land of "Zebulon". The other was south in the land of "Judah".

How did the prophet Micah do on his prophecy of the location of the birth of Jesus 700 years before it happened? He nailed it!

700 years before Christ Micah named the birth-city of Jesus – Bethlehem –

But there were 2 Bethlehem ‘s in Israel…

To miss the correct identification would be a False Prophecy !

How did Micah get it right ?

He tagged the correct Bethlehem with a “GPS”-ID code ! That is—he 'Land-Locked' it to geography.

Jeremiah did the same with Babylon to secure the irreplaceable-ID of prophetic-Babylon—BABYLON of CHALDEA.

Must Old Testament Babylon be REPLACED to qualify as New Testament Babylon?                     
Just as “CHALDEA” is the geographic footprint of Babylon, so also is "ZION" the geographic footprint of Jerusalem.              
Babylon cannot be removed from Chaldea anymore than Jerusalem can be removed from Zion.
The Bible ties both of these cities to a particular piece of real estate—therefore, neither can be Biblically "Replaced".  


One may have in mind Rome, New York City, London, America, Mecca, etc., but in this presentation we are talking about Biblical “Babylon of Chaldea”, the only one in the OT.

            "Babylon is mentioned 164 times in Jeremiah, more than in the rest of God’s Word combined. "        
              William McDonald, Believers Bible Commentary, Old Testament, Thomas Nelson Publishers, Nashville, TN, 1992, p. 1025.  

            "...[As they] subsequently inherited the empire of Babylonia, the terms "Chaldean" and "Babylonian" became synonymous (Isa 47:1; Da             9:1)...Chaldean power in Babylon experienced a resurgence during the reigns of Nabopolassar and his son Nebuchadnezzar. The last dynasty of             Babylon is thus known as the Chaldean, or Neo-Babylonian Empire."

            NIV Archaeological Study Bible, Walter C. Kaiser, ed., Zondervan, Grand Rapids, MI, 2005, p. 1402.

JERUSALEM of ZION and BABYLON of CHALDEA mentioned in same passage. ( Jeremiah 51:35) 

            '"May the violence done to me and to my flesh be upon Babylon," The inhabitant of Zion will say; And, "May my blood be upon the inhabitants of                        Chaldea," Jerusalem will say.'  To Replace one city linked to real estate gives us permission to Replace the other city linked to real estate.

What is the Biblical evidence that

Old Testament Babylon is Replaced by New Testament Babylon?

There is no direct statement, but there are a series of weak assumptions. They are all built upon a larger, but equally weak, assumption—that the Literal words of Bible Prophecy are to be discarded in favor of the Symbolic. This is always the interpretive-path of "Replacement". It is the same path that leads to Old Testament Israel supposedly "Replaced" by New Testament Israel (as the Church).

Here are the assumptions that lead to a Replacement-Babylon in the New Testament;
1. It is assumed that Old Testament Babylon has not survived,     but met its Final Fall in the 6th century BC.
        But the presence of Inhabitants, Farms, Livestock, Arabs,         etc., show the fallacy of this assumption HERE...
2. It is assumed that Babylon must be a Great Big City to be          the "Great City" of Revelation?
        The fallacy of this assumption is shown HERE...
3. It is assumed that Babylon must be a long-standing

    Old-Wealth City to be the "Wealthy" City of Revelation?
        The fallacy of this assumption is shown HERE...
4. It is assumed that Babylon must be a Giant Portside City to     Control global maritime wealth?
        The fallacy of this assumption is shown HERE...

Where are the following "facts" to "support" a

Replacement-Babylon found in the Bible?

1. Old Testament Babylon underwent its Final Fall in the 6th     century BC?       

        Daniel and friends didn't think so. See Note #2 below.
2. Babylon will re-locate to a "New Babylon" in the prophecies     of Revelation?
        Jeremiah places the Final Fall of Babylon of Chaldea at the         time of the New Covenant Salvation of Israel—the End         Time. So any "New Babylon" would make 2 end-time         Babylons. See Note #3 below.

3. The Babylon of Jeremiah will be Replaced by the Babylon of     Revelation?
        To "not rise again" means to "not reappear". Babylon will         "sink down" and not reappear. See Note #4 below.


1. Jeremiah 50:1-5 reveals how the imposition of a Replacement preconception destroys the Literal meaning of an entire passage.

2. If Israel is a LITERAL reference, then how is it Babylon is NOT a LITERAL reference?

3. If we “REPLACE” Babylon of Chaldea, then why not “REPLACE” Israel of Mt. Zion? (NOTE #11 below

4. It is really impossible to do that, because both words, Babylon and Israel,
            1. are used together in the same opening                 verses of Jeremiah, verses 1-5
            2. are anchored by direct reference to                         irreplacable geographic real estate

                                            —Chaldea & Mt. Zion.



                1. Jer-B   = Jeremiah 50-51 Babylon prophecy

                2. Rev-B  = Revelation 17-18 Babylon prophecy

The ISSUE facing a "REPLACEMENT" Babylon:

                Many see two different "Babylons" between Jer-B and Rev-B. But that is wrong. Both prophecies detail a singular TIMED (end-time salvation of                 the Jews) prophetic event ( Jer 51:63-64; Rev 18:21 ) which confirms that these two prophecies refer to the same Babylon.

                1. The SINGULAR PROPHETIC EVENT— Babylon will have a FINAL Fall, after which, Babylon will NOT Rise Again.

                2. This is a "Final Irreversible Fall". It means, since the fall is final, Babylon will NOT reappear. Yet, Jer 50:1-5 requires Babylon to                     reappear, and be visible at that time. This is the same time (end of the Tribulation) that Revelation Babylon (Rev-B) has its Final Fall.

Here's the problem with 2 different Babylons (an original Babylon of Chaldea and a Replacement Babylon in a "great city" somewhere):

                1. Both Jer-B and Rev-B prophesy of a "Final Irreversible Fall".

                2. If  Jer-B and Rev-B are 2 different Babylons, then each has its own prophecy of a "Final Irreversible Fall".

                3. That makes them 2 different "Final Irreversible Fall" events.

                4. The problem? ...contradictory prophecies! Here's why,

GRAPH #1 right --the error of the

        —REPLACEMENT View of Babylon 
1. Jer-B had its Fall in the Persian conquest of 539 BC.
2. Over several centuries it qualifies as its FINAL Fall, and fulfills its prophecy to "not rise again." (Jer 51:63-64)
3. Rev-B Replaces Jer-B as the "New Babylon", based primarily on 7 Assumptions that Jer-B and Rev-B CANNOT be the Same Babylon.

        The 7 Erroneous Assumptions, RIGHT...

4. Rev-B's FINAL Fall occurs at the Time of the End-Time Salvatiion of the Jews.
5. Rev-B experiences the same prophetic fufillment as Jer-B--at its FINAL Fall it "will not rise again".

This REPLACEMENT View  outlined in the 5 points above stands or falls on these 7 Flawed Assumptions (right).

When accepted, they prop-up a Modern City (New York, London, Rome, Mecca, etc.) as a Symbolic "Babylon" to Replace the Bible's original, Literal Babylon at the End Time.

Seven (7) Erroneous "Replacement" Assumptions

1. Old Testament Babylon had its FINAL Fall in 539 BC.

            See HERE for the error of this assumption...
2. As a result, Babylon of Chaldea did not Survive.

            See HERE for the error of this assumption...  
3. Babylon of Chaldea, over an extended time, bacame a desolation like Sodom and Gamorrah.

            See HERE for the error of this assumption...  
4. At the End Time, New-Babylon must be a Super-Large City to qualify as Babylon the Great,

            See HERE for the error of this assumption...  
5. Babylon the Great must be an old-line, Super-Wealthy City.

            See HERE for the error of this assumption...  
6. Babylon the Great must be a global-centric Giant Seaport City.

            See HERE for the error of this assumption...  
7. Babylon of Chaldea must be Replaced by a Modern city to fulfill Babylon's prophecies.  

            Only if the LITERAL words must give way to allegory, symbolism, and metaphor...  

MORE, Note #6.

GRAPH #2 right

                —LITERAL View of Babylon  

1. Jer-B has its FIRST Fall in the Persian conquest of 539 BC.

2. Jer-B Survives, proven by the fact that it also survives subsequent conquests. Over the centuries it becomes a ruined, Relic-city— but a city in a slow, inconspicuous, centuries-long growth mode.

3. Jer-B, when the LITERAL prophecy is given precedence over the 7 Flawed Assumptions (above), Reemerges as Rev-B at the End Time.

4. Therefore, Jer-B and Rev-B are One and the Same--"Jer/Rev-B".

5. Jer/Rev-B has its FINAL Fall at the End Time Salvation of the Jews.

6. Jer/Rev-B disappears and "will not rise again", and "will not be found any longer". (Jer 51:64; Rev 18:21)

NOTE: In point #1 above Jer-B's FIRST Fall was not its FINAL Fall. Four (4) ancient historical accounts—one of them being the Bible (see Note #2 below)— testify to this fact. Babylon's FIRST Fall was temporary. Babylon has Survived until today.

In Graph #2 above, both Revelation and Jeremiah prophecies 

speak of the SAME BABYLON

Whereas Jer-B prophesies about the span of Babylon of Chaldea's history from Nebuchadnezzar's time to its FINAL Fall at the End Time, while Rev-B prophesies of its reign as the "Great City" beginning with the Tribulation until that SAME FINAL Fall at the End Time. 


Therefore, the appearance of "Babylon the Great City" in Revelation 17-18 is not another, relocated, "Babylon", which would be a REPLACEMENT Babylon. It is original Babylon "REVIVED, i.e., rebuilt, reoccupied, revitalized, reenergized, reemerged, restored."

When?...  ...and How?

At the very INSTANT the  Antichrist designates Babylon of Chaldea as his Command and Control Center and sets his Throneroom in its midst. 

            When the 10 Kings sign over their Confederated Kingdom to the Antichrist (Rev 17:13, 17), with             all of their international  assets, infrastructure, wealth, military forces, transportation and             communication systems, etc., then the practical reality of Babylon as the Command and             Control Center of the World...

                                                                                       ... becomes a virtual reality Overnight ! 

GRAPH #3 right


Jeremiah 50-51 is a panorama of Babylon's prophetic-history from the days of Nebuchadnezzar all the way to its FINAL Fall at the End Time. To understand these prophecies is a challenge because Jeremiah's account is an example of "Blended-Prophecy".

        For examples, see NOTE #8 below...

GRAPH #4 right

                        Two (2) Babylons?

 To insert a "Replacement-Babylon" into the Graph #3 Biblical timeline above would be to insert a SECOND Babylon, making two (2) "Babylons" in Revelation's end-time prophecy (not “Harlot” and “Political”, which are 2 phases of the same Babylon , Rev 17-18, but 2 Babylons at 2 different locations). This, of course, would be an outside-the-Bible construct—totally un-Biblical. That is because John (Rev 16:19 ), and Jeremiah himself (Jer 50:5 ), requires Babylon of Chaldea to be present at the End-Time Salvation of the Jews.

GRAPH #5 right 


1. The “Replacement” mode sees the LOCATION of both Israel and Babylon temporary and transient.

2. This error perpetuates the assumption that Israel, as well as Babylon, if destroyed at one LOCATION, can simply be Replaced by appearing at another LOCATION, or in another form.

3. But the geographic locale of Israel and Babylon is far more than just its LOCATION—it is its AUTHENTICATION. More importantly than WHERE Israel is, the Location identifies WHO Israel is.

                                            more right...

4. The same holds true for Babylon. The LOCATION is the GPS-identification and authentication for both Israel and Babylon. MORE in Note #9 below


5. The Location-AUTHENTICATION of both Israel and Babylon cannot be REPLACED because God has permanently pinned their national names to a respective geo-spot on the earth. (Jer 25:5; 50:1)  

GRAPH #6 right

                    The Path of “Replacement”

When the Literal mophs into the Symbolic, it opens the door for human "creative"-interpretation. The reader is freed from the literal words on the page, and essentially can assume the pen of the writer and insert allegory, speculation, metaphor, speculation, reading between the lines, rather than the written lines themselves, and make the text say what they want it to say. This is how things get REPLACED!

  GRAPH #7 right   

                                    The Path to Truth

When the Literal READING is faithful to the Literal WRITING (which may include its own Literal-Symbols, but they are the writer's), then one has arrived at the writer's intended meaning.

No one would want the probate-lawyer to read anything other than the LITERAL words in grandma's Will ! Why would we expect less from a reading of God's Word ?

A Literal reading of the prophecies gives no hint of "REPLACEMENT" for Israel or Babylon.

Note above, that the LITERAL fulfillment of the prophesied Restoration of physical Israel (Eze 37:12) occurred in 1948 with the re-birth of the Nation, thus confirming the common sense of literal-sense.

GRAPH #8 right

The Super-Rapid, Overnight Rise of the "Great City"-- HOW ?

(Rev 17 "Harlot-Babylon" could also rise "OVERNIGHT", but more likely a "rapid-process"!)

Connect numbers BELOW to numbers on right

    1. Babylon-Hillah, Iraq, is a medium-size

            Relic-City of LEGENDARY proportions.

    2. The 10 nations (federated-Kingdom of 10         Kings, Rev 17:12-13, 17) give their nations         and entire national sovereignty, assets         and authority, to the Antichrist.

    3. Satan, the "god of this world" (2 Cor 4:4),         gives the Antichrist "GREAT Authority". (Rev         13:2, 5-7).

    4. This immense Global-Authority makes the         Antichrist the CENTER OF ALL (worldly)         POWER.

    5. The Antichrist chooses legendary-Babylon         as his throneroom and headquarters.

    6. This occupancy of relic-Babylon by the most         powerful man on earth immediately         thrusts Babylon into the position of--not         the Largest-- but the "GREAT[est] City" in         the world.

    7. Because of its GREAT AUTHORITY as the         Command & Control Center of its chief         occupant, Babylon rules the world. (see         "What Is The Connection Between The         Antichrist And Babylon" for the evidence         that Babylon is the capital city of the         Antichrist)             more right...

        The very so-called Babylon-Replacement cities-- Rome, London, etc.-- turn over their national assets-- lock-stock-& barrel-- to the Relic City the Antichrist has picked as his Chosen City-- his Command & Control Center of his Global Empire.

        Those mega-large "Replacement" cities which would "replace" Babylon are themselves Replaced by Babylon. They each give the Antichrist the Keys to their Kingdom. He takes those Keys to Babylon of Chaldea, changing the legendary-relic city overnight into Revelation's "Great City."

        In this age of "instant mobility", from inter-contenental mobile smart-phone communication to trans-contenental wealth and power-broker mobility, the "overnight" changes required by the timelines prophesied in the Book of Revelation are today not only possible, but probable (just compare it to the difference between yester-year's Immobile land-line Phone Booth and today's Mobile smart phone).

        Therefore, the appearance of "Babylon the Great City" in Revelation 17-18 is not another, relocated, "Babylon", which would be a REPLACEMENT Babylon. It is original Babylon "rebuilt, revitalized, reenergized, reemerged, restored." When? At the very INSTANT the  Antichrist designates Babylon of Chaldea as his Command and Control Center and sets his Throneroom in its midst.

            When the 10 Kings sign over their Confederated Kingdom to the Antichrist (Rev 17:13, 17), with all of their international  assets, infrastructure, wealth, military forces, transportation and             communication systems, etc., then the practical reality of Babylon as the Command and Control Center of the World becomes a virtual reality Overnight. 

GRAPH #9 right

The Super-Rapid, Overnight Shift from Harlot-City to Antichrist-City -- HOW ?  (connect the numbers to the graph)

    1. At the beginning of the Tribulation the "heart         and soul" of Babylon-City will be the wicked         one-world religious system, headquartered         there, known in Revelation 17 as the "Mother         of Harlots" and the "abominations of the         earth."

    2. Because of the drunken-like influence false         spirituality has on people and nations, the         City is called "great" (Rev 17:18)...

    3-4. ...and the Antichrist and his 10-king         confederacy will hate the "Harlot"-system,         and act unwittingly in God's plan by         destroying ("burn", Rev 17:16) the Harlot         false global religious system. (more right)

 5-6-7. The Antichrist immediately fills the now vacuous "heart and soul" of Babylon with his own global             religious system--HIMSELF ! (Rev 13:8; 2 Thes 2:4) 

            All aspects of human power--religious, political, economic, and military-- are now under the             authority, command and control, of the Antichrist--and by proxy, Babylon of Chaldea.

  For a summary of the whole Harlot system, see NOTE #10 below...  

7 Charts showing...

The Biblical Correlation of Jeremiah and Revelation — the SAME BABYLON

CHART #1 Right:

1. Babylon, after Jerusalem, dominates the Old Testament more than any other city. And more than any other Old Testament book, its story is found in Jeremiah.

2. In the Old Testament, Jeremiah chapters 50-51 are the primary prophetic chapters on Babylon, with near and far prophecies often compressed into a single prophecy.

Babylon is mentioned 164 times in Jeremiah, more that in the rest of God's word combined.

William McDonald, Believers Bible Commentary, Old Testament, Thomas Nelson Publishers, Nashville, TN, 1992, p. 1025.

3. Jeremiah relates the story of Babylon's ancient history as a perpetual enemy of Israel, its glory days of king Nebuchadnezzar, its fall to the Persians, all the way to its final destiny at the End Time.

                            (Jer 50:4-5, 40; 51:26, 62-64)

4. Jeremiah is clear about 3 specific aspects of the Babylon-prophecies,
1. SUBJECT —  Babylon
2. PLACE  — Babylon in the "land of the Chaldeans" (Jer 50:1)
3. TERMINUS TIME  — End-Time Salvation of the Jews (Jer 50:5; 32:40)

NOTE: Babylon is Babylon in the "land of the Chaldeans" which has a GPS locator of 32.32º x 44.25º in Iraq. This excludes any other city as a "Replacement Babylon."

CHART #2 Right:

1. Jeremiah identifies Babylon as Babylon of Chaldea 10 times, spread evenly across the 110 verses in chapters 50-51.

2. Jeremiah directly links Babylon of Chaldea (Iraq) with Babylon the Great City in Revelation 18 by pronouncing the same destiny on the City, which in both cases is named "Babylon".    

    "And it will come about as soon as you finish     reading this scroll, you will tie a stone to it and     throw it into the middle of the Euphrates, and     say, 'Just so shall Babylon sink down and not     rise again..." (Jer 51:63-64)   

    "And a strong angel took up a stone like a great     millstone and threw it into the sea, saying,     "Thus will Babylon, the great city, be thrown     down with violence, and will not be found any     longer." (Rev 18:21)

3. Note that the Jeremiah prophecy says "Babylon [will fall] and not rise again." The Revelation 18 prophecy says essentially the same thing. If the City in Jeremiah is NOT the same City as Revelation 18, then Babylon DOES rise again —in Revelation 18! Move Babylon to a different city, a different time, a different location —the fact remains, Babylon WOULD rise again —an event the prophecy specifically prohibits.

CHART #3 Right:

4. If the Babylon of Revelation 18 is a different Babylon, then the prophecy of Jeremiah that Babylon will not rise again would be a false prophecy. For it would only mean that Babylon will not rise again AT THAT LOCATION (Chaldea)! But still, it WILL rise again — RIGHT?  But the prophecy doesn't say that. It says Babylon will NOT rise again.

So, if one says, "Babylon will rise again at another location", still, that would make Babylon rise again. Yet, Jeremiah says emphatically that Babylon will "not rise again." A change of LOCATION cannot alter the prophetic, unqualified fact-statement, "NOT rise again."

See NOTE #9 below regarding the fallacy of adding a Qualifier to the fact statement that that at its FINAL Fall, Babylon "will not rise again".

CHART #4 Right:

5. Others might say, "Well, Babylon of Chaldea could fall and rise again at a DIFFERENT LOCATION." That's just another way of repeating #3 above. It presumes the "spirit of Babylon" drifts across continents infesting various cities and empires until it settles in on a giant super-skyscraper metropolis in the last days to rise up as the Babylon of Revelation 18. But just as the "spirit of the antichrist" (1 John 2:18; 4:3 ) is not THE ANTICHRIST, neither is the "spirit of Babylon" (Rev 18:2) THE CITY of Babylon.

6. Just as one can pick Caesar, Attila, Hitler, or Stalin as "many antichrists [who] have arisen" (1 John 2:18), many today pick New York, London, Rome, or Mecca as many 'Babylons' which have

 arisen. But in either case, there is only ONE Antichrist, and only ONE Babylon. Just as Hitler was filled with the "spirit of the antichrist", but does not REPLACE The Antichrist of prophecy, Rome is filled with the "spirit of Babylon", but does not REPLACE the Babylon of prophecy.

CHART #5 Right:

7. Therefore, both prophecies (right, in red) that Babylon will have a final fall to never rise again. are the same prophecy about the same Babylon

8. The fact is, if Babylon fell to never rise again--just as Sodom and Gomorrah never rose again--then for it to rise somewhere else or to transfer its identity to another "Babylon", would refute the finality demanded by Jeremiah's prophecy.

CHART #6 Right:

9. The Babylon of Jeremiah and the Babylon of Revelation are in harmony as the SAME EVENT. There are no contradictions in Babylon's prophecies in both Testaments.

The only reason to "Replace" Babylon of Chaldea is a preconception that Babylon of Chaldea can never qualify as Babylon the Great City-- a notion we have disproved throughout this 7-Part "Reemergence of Babylon" Series.

CHART #7 Right:

10. The Babylon of Jeremiah and the Babylon of Revelation are in harmony as the SAME ONE and ONLY Babylon of Chaldea.
As shown in Graph #2 above (not Chart #2), the prophecies correlate when it is seen that Jeremiah's prophecy spans the history of ancient Babylon clear to the end of the age and its FINAL Fall, while Revelation's prophecy focuses on end-time Babylon leading to that SAME FINAL Fall.

1. Babylon of Chaldea could be a Small city and still be Babylon the GREAT.

2. A LARGE city cannot be Babylon the GREAT if it is not Babylon of Chaldea.

"In the coming tribulation period, the antichrist will rule the entire world from his headquarters located in the

literal, rebuilt city of Babylon on the Euphrates River found in modern day Iraq...

...numerous Christians throughout church history embraced this view...
Sadly, many reject this view. Why? Unbelief and timing are the two primary reasons

that cause interpreters to reject the literal Babylon view....

...Prior to 1948, Bible students faced a similar dilemma regarding how to interpret

the plethora of prophecies requiring a Jewish return to their ancient homeland.

However, the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948 vindicated those who insisted upon a literal interpretation.

Those that insist upon literally construing the prophecies regarding Babylon will one day be similarly vindicated."
 Andy Woods Ministries, Babylon of the End Times, PDF, (p 1,17-18); http://www.spiritandtruth.org/teaching/documents/articles/115/115.pdf?x=x

"previous commentaries on Revelation take...this great city, Babylon...to be Rome, or New York, or some other city, but not Babylon. What is the explanation for this reluctance to believe that John meant Babylon when he wrote 'Babylon'?"...to say that spiritual Babylon is either Rome or the Roman Catholic Church is to grossly underestimate the age long global impact of this great mystery, Babylon the Great. Babylon is the mother of all the harlots and abominations of the earth."

Henry Morris, The Revelation Record, Tyndale House Publishers, Wheaton, IL, 1983, p.323, 332.

"It is no wonder that God has reserved the full measure of His wrath for Babylon (Rev 16:19)...the city which will rise again at its ancient site on the Euphrates river in modern-day Iraq."

Philllip Goodman, The Assyrian Connection, Prescott Press, Lafayette, LA, 1993, p. 172.

NEXT, part 7, "Babylon TIMING"



                                        COMPLETE SUMMARY STATEMENTS


( Summary of the 7 Propositions listed below, each of which encapsulates a subject of this 7-Part series )

Babylon of Chaldea has Survived, slowly rebuilding for a thousand years, awaiting its destiny as

the Throneroom of the Antichrist, the City Chosen by HIM to enforce HIS Authority and HIS Ownership

of the Global Sovereignty, Wealth, and Trade ceded "Overnight" to HIM by the Nations;

Babylon awaits its destiny as "the Great City"—perishing with its Final Fall at the Return of Christ.

(Jeremiah 50-51; Revelation 17-18)

(The "Great" in the "Great City" is the result of its status as the base-city

for the "Great Authority" of its chief occupant, the Antichrist)

Below are 7 Summary Statements concluded from the Biblical, archaeological and historical evidence presented in this series. Each of the 7 statements corresponds respectively to the 7 Parts of this series, where we will present the evidence that,

        1. Babylon of Chaldea (Iraq) has Survived to fulfill its prophesied date with destiny.
Photographs of Conditions said to be impossible after Babylon's Final Destruction prove Babylon has Survived.


        2. Babylon has been rebuilding, inconspicuously, and unnoticed, for centuries.
Beginning in the midst of Babylon's ruins, the Literal Stones of Babylon have for 1000 years been recycled and redistributed to expand and build up the city of Hillah --essentially Rebuilding Babylon.


        3. Revelation's title "Babylon the Great City" does not require Babylon to be a Super-Large city. 
Babylon is "Great"--not because of Great Size--but because of its Great Authority derived from its status as the throne-room City of the Antichrist.


        4. The description "the Wealthy City" does not require Babylon to be a city of long-standing wealth. 
Babylon becomes the global icon of extreme Wealth, not from Old-wealth, but from Overnight Wealth, bequeathed and bestowed by the Nations.


        5. Babylon "the Great" does not require Babylon to be a massive Seaport City. 
Babylon is not itself a Giant Seaport City, but it Controls Global Seaports from a distance across continents and seas.


        6. Babylon of Chaldea has not been "Replaced" any more than Israel of Mt. Zion has been Replaced. 
Babylon has a Biblical-Chaldean GPS Identification of  32.32º x 44.25º which excludes any other city as a Replacement Babylon.


        7. Babylon, Iraq, has a prophetic-time appointment that parallels that of Israel. 
Babylon of Chaldea has a Date With Destiny prophetically scheduled to coincide with the New Covenant Salvation of Israel at the End Time. (Jer 5-:1-5

If the evidence sustains these 7 points, where is the need for a metaphorical Replacement to the plain, common sense, literal understanding of the word "Babylon"?

2. Did Old Testament Babylon have its Final Fall in the 6th century BC? 


Daniel was declared by the Lord Himself to be one of His most faithful servants. (Eze 14:14, 20) And Daniel was certainly familiar with the Book of Jeremiah, since Jeremiah's prophecies had a big part for Babylon, and were written about a half-century before Daniel's prophecies were written, and were well circulated, with even a copy in Daniel's library (Dan 9:2). Through Jeremiah's writings, God warned the Jews to flee Babylon before its Final Fall.


                Flee from the midst of Babylon, And each of you save his life! Do not be destroyed in her punishment, For this is the LORD'S time of vengeance; He                 is going to render recompense to her. ( Jer 51:6, 45)

Daniel didn't flee. But he wasn't disobedient. Rather, Daniel knew that the Persian "peaceful" takeover of Babylon in 539 BC WASN'T the the Final Fall and destruction described in Jeremiah's prophecies— that event having been prophesied by Jeremiah to coincide with the End-Time Salvation of the Jews. (50:5)

Many believing Jews, like Daniel, remained in Babylon after the Persian conquest, including Heldai, Tobijah, and Jedaiah, who traveled to Jerusalem from Babylon to carry a contribution for Rebuilding the Temple. (Zec 6:10)  MORE on the FIRST Fall of Babylon...

3. Does Old Testament Babylon re-locate to a "New Babylon" in the prophecies of Revelation? 

Babylon of Chaldea is still awaiting the fulfillment of prophecies. Included is its presence and destiny at the time of the End-Time Salvation of the Jews (the New Covenant promised to Israel; Jer 30-33). Since Revelation 14 and 17-18 foretells of "Babylon" reigning mightily as the "Great City" at the very same time, if these Babylons are not the same Babylon, then there would exist the awkward and unexplainable prophecy of two (2) Babylons at the End Time. Jeremiah's Babylon didn't end its story with the conclusion of the Old Testament era. Babylon of Chaldea cannot be shut down so easily. There is more to come before its prophecies as accounted not only in Jeremiah, but Isaiah 13, have run their course, and that course is scheduled to terminate at the End Time. Rather than Revelation's Babylon amounting to either a Replacement Babylon or a Second Babylon in the Last Days, it is seamlessly accounted for as the SAME BABYLON as Jeremiah's Babylon of Chaldea, its final days and Final Fall given full prophetic exposure in the Book of Revelation.

4. Is the Babylon of Jeremiah Replaced by the Babylon of Revelation?

To "not rise again" means to "not reappear". Babylon will "sink down" and not reappear. (Jer 51:63-64)

If Babylon of Chaldea, Iraq, experienced its final "sink down", then Babylon can NOT reappear here, there, or anywhere, including a relocated New York-Babylon, Rome-Babylon, London-Babylon, Mecca-Babylon, etc. Anything otherwise would expose Jeremiah 51:63-64 as a false prophecy.

But Babylon of Chaldea does not "reappear" after, and in contradiction to, a "Final sink-down". Babylon of Chaldea survives throughout history to reemerge as Babylon the Great of Revelation, primed for its Final Fall —   its final "sink down"— in Revelation 18:21 in complete fulfillment of Jeremiah 51:64. 


Why should anyone be surprised that Babylon, Iraq, would re-enter history at the End Time? Bible prophecy shows a "return to the East".

"Back East...man got his start in the East. The Bible says that man was placed in 'a garden toward the east, in Eden' (Benesis 2:8). For the early millennia of man's history, the focus remained in the East. The great empires were all located there"
Mark Hitchcock, The Second Coming Of Babylon, 2003, Multnomah Publishers, Sisters, OR, p.43.
"...in the most recent decades, something incredible has begun to happen. Power and world attention has begun to return to the East. With little warning the East has risen again as a major player."
Mark Hitchcock, The Second Coming Of Babylon, 2003, Multnomah Publishers, Sisters, OR, p.44.
"The Bible says that the Middle East is the stage for the key events of the end times. The East is back. And it is herre to stay.
Mark Hitchcock, The Second Coming Of Babylon, 2003, Multnomah Publishers, Sisters, OR, p.45.

6. I'm sure you have noticed that when we don't take Bible Prophecy LITERALLY, we end up REPLACING things...
For example...

            1. If we don't accept the Literal words that Christ will rule over a 1000-yr Kingdom...
                then presto— post-millennial "Kingdom Now" Theology (the Church will set up the Millennial Kingdom) !  

            2. If we don't accept that there will be a Literal Tribulation...
                then presto— Preterism... the 70 AD Destruction of Jerusalem was the 2nd Coming of Christ!

            3. And most notably, if we don't accept a Literal Israel...
                then what do we have?—the Church replaces Israel & enters the Tribulation!
The Academic term for this is REPLACEMENT THEOLOGY... the common-sense term is "Changing-the-Meaning", because that's what happens.
Here's HOW THAT WORKS when we replace Israel with the Church, and notice how Babylon often undergoes the same REPLACEMENT process... HERE
We see that in the same way as Replacement of Israel with the Church, we Replace Babylon with...
             New York City in many cases ... tall buildings, ocean-front, population, etc.
            — London, some times...
            — America, very often... but how do we get "the Great City" out of this one ???
            — Rome, MOST OFTEN...
The common-denominator is this: Just as Israel is no longer Israel,
Babylon is no longer Babylon

7. The "spirit of Babylon" is real. But it doesn't REPLACE Literal Babylon.

        Babylon the great! ... a dwelling place of demons and a prison of every unclean spirit...ALL the nations were deceived by your sorcery (Rev 18.2, 23
        Children, it is the last hour; and just as you heard that antichrist is coming, even now many antichrists have arisen; from this we know that it is the last         hour...this is the spirit of the antichrist, of which you have heard that it is coming, and now it is already in the world.    

        1 John 2:18; 4:3
THE SPIRIT OF SODOM AND EGYPT IS NOT SODOM AND EGYPT; Jerusalem has the "spirit of Sodom", but original Sodom remains Sodom.
        And their dead bodies will lie in the street of the great city which mystically is called Sodom and Egypt, where also their Lord was crucified. Rev 11:8
        America may have the "spirit of Babylon", but Babylon is Babylon.
SPIRIT OF BABYLON OF CHALDEA; Although cities and nations across the earth are drunk with the spirit of Babylon, they are NOT Babylon.
        And he cried out with a mighty voice, saying, "Fallen, fallen is Babylon the great! And she has become a dwelling place of demons and a prison of

        every unclean spirit, and a prison of every unclean and hateful bird. ( Rev 18:2  

        Babylon has been a golden cup in the hand of the LORD, Intoxicating all the earth [with the spirit of Babylon]. The nations have drunk of her wine; Therefore the nations are going         mad.   (Jer 51:7  

        And another angel, a second one, followed, saying, "Fallen, fallen is Babylon the great, she who has made all the nations drink of [the spirit of Babylon] the wine of the passion of her immorality." ( Rev 14:8  


Jeremiah 50-51 is a panorama of Babylon's prophetic-history from the days of Nebuchadnezzar all the way to its FINAL Fall at the End Time. To understand these prophecies is a challenge because Jeremiah's account is an example of "Blended-Prophecy".

If, in a Scrabble game, you lined up in chronological order, letters spelling out the major periods of Babylon's history and prophecies—  "Nebuchadnezzar (Jer 50-51), Persian conquest (Jer 50-51), Harlot Babylon (Rev 17), Commercial Babylon (Rev 18), Final Fall (Rev 16, 18), etc.,— glued some of the letters together and dumped all the letters into a bowl, and then attempted to reassemble the letters into their chronological outline of Babylon's prophetic-history, well, you can see the challenge. 

This is a common retorical mode of Bible prophecy (eg., Isa 9:6). Often given as a single prophecy, part is often near in time of fulfillment, while the other part is farther in time. Jeremiah speaks of Near Fulfillment ("Nebuchadnezzar, 50:17; 51:34), and he speaks of Far Fulfillment (Salvation of the Jews, 50:4-5), and everything in-between, all delivered as a single prophecy. To some degree, these prophecies can be sorted out.

  Some examples and some Interpretive Challenges to follow HERE shortly  

9. Babylon is IRREPLACABLE Because at its FINAL Fall Babylon "will not rise again" (Jer 51:64; Rev 18:21)

                                                    The "PROBLEM" restated...

If there are 2 different Babylons as shown in Graph #1, above, then that scenario would expose Jer-B as a false prophecy. Why? Jeremiah 51:63-64 says that after its FINAL Fall (which proponents say occurred in the Persian takeover during Daniel's time), Babylon will "not rise again". That is, Babylon will NOT Rise Again!

But since Babylon appears during the Tribulation in Revelation 18 (Rev-B), that would seem to show that Babylon DOES Rise Again! 

Some would hope to mitigate this problem by saying, "Well, this is a different 'Babylon' at a different location"?

Or... "Since Jeremiah 50-51 is discussing Babylon of Chaldea, then the statement means, 'Babylon OF CHALDEA' will not rise again.' " 

But there are NO QUALIFIERS in the statement of Jeremiah 51:64; it simply says, "Just so shall Babylon sink down and not rise again"

It doesn't say, "Just so shall Babylon sink down and not rise again — AT THIS LOCATION."

But the response might be "Babylon LOCATED IN CHALDEA will sink down and not rise again — because, as you've pointed out, Jeremiah's prophecy is about Babylon of Chaldea".

But then, that just adds a new problem:

       1. First, we now have 2 Babylons.

        2.Second, since the first Babylon has the QUALIFIER "Babylon of Chaldea",

       3. then the second Babylon must also have a QUALIFIER to distinguish it, say, "Babylon of New York City".

        4. Now, the problem of having 2 Babylons is compounded--Why not 3, or 4...in other words, "Babylon of New York City" will fall and not rise again, but             then will come "Babylon of Rome" which will fall and not rise again, and so forth.

       5. Each new Replacement-Babylon would be succeeded by the next Replacement-Babylon, ad-infinitum... perhaps right on through the Millennium until             the final revolt of Revelation 20:8-9?

        6. It is best to read Jeremiah 51:64 as "Just so shall Babylon sink down and not rise again" with NO QUALIFIERS. Babylon is Babylon, and once it's             FINAL FALL happens, Babylon is DONE WITH


        10. The "TIMING" statement of Jeremiah doesn't permit a re-location of Babylon.

            Jeremiah 50-51 has two (2) clear TIME MARKERS which show the span of the prophecy to begin in the late 7th-early 6th centuries and terminate at the             End Time.        

                    BEGINNING Time Marker    

                            "Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon ... of Chaldea..." (Jer 51:34-35)    

                    TERMINAL Time Marker    

                            The word which the LORD spoke concerning Babylon, the land of the Chaldeans... "They will ask for the way to Zion, turning their faces in its                             direction; they will come that they may join themselves to the LORD in an everlasting covenant that will not be forgotten. (Jer 50:1-5) 


                    This means that any "Babylon", apart from Jeremiah's Babylon of Chaldea, which supposedly rises up in Revelation 17-18), would make TWO (2)                     Babylons at the End Time-- a scenario without Biblical merit. Any such "Babylon" exists only OUTSIDE of the Bible.    

                    But there is no conflict, no contradiction, no problem when the literal straightforward reading of both Jeremiah's and Revelation's prophecies are                     seen as a single prophecy continued from the Old Testament into the New Testament, forth-telling the history and destiny of ONE AND THE SAME                     Babylon, spanning the centuries from Nebuchadnezzar to the End Time.

            11. The LAND-LOCKED Irreplaceable Authentication

                    According to Jeremiah's prophecies, Babylon's location is not a temporary location; Babylon and its Chaldean location are inseparable,                     continuous, and permanent from the time of Nebuchadnezzar (50:17) until the salvation of the Jews (50:1-5) at the End Time. Therefore, the                     Chaldean Land is more than simply a "location"—it is a geographic-fingerprint that authenticates Babylon's Identity, Who Babylon IS! And,                     likewise, Who IS Babylon!                          

                    For instance, the Land of Israel (Mount "Zion", Jerusalem, the capital of Israel, 50:5) authenticates Israel's Identity, who is and who is not Israel. To                     divorce Israel from Mount Zion (Land of Israel) is to remove Israel's ID Card. Anyone could claim to be Israel—and many have. But the Land of                     Israel identifies WHO is Israel ("your own land", Eze 37:14 ; Jer 25:5). Any other "Israel" is a Replacement.

                    This geographic-fingerprint is also equally true of Bethlehem, the birthplace of Jesus. We read of the prophecy that Jesus would be born in, not                     just Bethlehem--but BETHLEHEM EPHRATHAH,

                                "But as for you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, Too little to be among the clans of Judah, From you One will go forth for Me to be ruler in Israel. His                                  goings forth are from long ago, From the days of eternity." (Micah 5:2)

                                "Christ will be from Bethlehem Ephrathah...also call Ephrath (Gen. 35:16-19; 48:7), was an older name for Bethlehem or the name of the                                 area around Bethlehem."       

                                                John F. Walvoord & Roy B. Zuck, The Bible Knowledge Commentary, SP Publications, Wheaton, IL, 1985, p.1486   

                                "Bethlehem Ephrathah: The name Ephrathah ...differentiates it from the Galilean town by the same name."   

                                                John MacArthur, The MacArthur Study Bible, Word Bibles, Nashville, TN, 1997, p. 1304.

                    "EPHRATHAH" nails Bethlehem to specific landscape in Israel. There was another "Bethlehem" village in northern Israel when Jesus was born. Yet,                     to fulfill the prophecy of Micah 5:2, Jesus was born in Bethlehem Ephrathat. In the same way, the Babylon prophecies can only be                     fulfilled inBabylon of Chaldea.


                    So, too, is the Land of Chaldea Babylon's ID Card. Babylon can only be authenticated as Babylon when it is Babylon of Chaldea. Any                     other "Babylon" is a Replacement. 


        1. The "MOTHER" predates the daughters... The Bible speaks of "harlots", which have existed throughout Biblical history (Isa. 1:21; 23:17; Eze. 23:17;                 Hos. 9:1; Nah. 2:4). Nevevah, Tyre, and even Jerusalem at times, were called out for their religious harlotry.  Jerusalem was severely disciplined.                 Nenevah and Tyre were condemned.

          2.   In Bible Prophecy it has become popular to "Replace" Babylon of Chaldea  with "Babylon of Rome", "New York", "America", etc. But not one of                 these "replacement" Babylons could then be the "Mother" of harlots for the simple reason that the dates of the "daughter" harlots are known (Isa.                 1:21; 23:17; Eze. 23:17; Hos. 9:1; Nah. 2:4)--and any insertion of a later "Mother" as a "replacement" to Babylon of Chaldea would cause these                 Biclically-named "harlots" to PREDATE the "Mother".

            3. The Biblical statement, in its straightforward literal sense, is that Babylon means Babylon, and Babylon, which predates all of the world's                 non-Christian religions, is therefore the "Mother of Harlots"......and the Bible keeps its Literal sense.

        2. The "Rewind" of history... "And the woman whom you saw is the great city, which reigns over the kings of the earth." (Revelation 17:18            

                The diverse religions of the world will 'rewind' their ancient dispersal from the Tower at Babylon (Gen 11:1-9) and reunite at Babylon of Chaldea as a                 single religion--a one-world false-religion acting as the moral authority to the world.        

                Babylon, the "Mother of Harlots", will once again find ALL of her "daughter-harlots" back at their birthplace.


                Babylon will become the "great city"--not because of size or military power-- but because for a short period Satan will reign as the ultimate false god                 through a unified false religion with

                his throne set in original Babylon where it all began.

                But then Satan (the false god) will raise up his Antichrist (false christ) and False Prophet (false holy spirit) and cast off the one-world religion in favor                 of his Antichrist's self-proclaimed 'god-above-them-all' at Babylon in modern-day Iraq. Babylon will indeed be the Great City! ...

                ...for a short, but torturous period at the end of this age called The GREAT TRIBULATION ! 

14. The ERROR of REPLACING Israel

This continues to manifests itself in today's 'Church' through such dogmatic and UN-Biblical dark-side theology as Preterism and Replacement Theology, both of which essentially relegate Israel to the dust bin of history, proclaiming that the State of Israel is totally irrelevant today.

But the Bible speaks forcefully against this error,
1. God has not rejected His people, has He? May it never be! For I too am an Israelite, a descendant of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. God has not rejected His people whom He foreknew. ... (Rom. 11:1-2) The Bible continues by saying that...
2. Paul's "blessing" upon the Jews in harmony with Genesis 12:3 is his "prayer to God ... for their salvation. (10:1)
3. "God has not rejected His people (11:1)", so how can we "Replace" them with man-made, stupid "theology"?
4. the Bible warns Believers (the Church) to "not be arrogant toward the branches (11:18).

5. Today's response?...Many mainline denominational web sites essentially "curse" Israel through such anti-Israel programs as the economic-based BDS program ("boycott-divest, i.e., 'un-invest'-& sanction). Persecution indeed!

15. What is the Relationship Between Old Testament & New Testament Babylon? Are they the same "Babylon"?

First, the dilemma found in a prophecy about the FINAL FALL of Babylon. RIGHT—Read the two prophecies about Babylon, Jeremiah on the left, Revelation on the right.
Jeremiah's associate, and 600 years later an Angel in Revelation, are both commanded to throw a stone into the Euphrates river. This action is said to symbolize the same result—that Babylon will be destroyed, never to rise again. The two prophecies were given over 600 years apart.

The "dilemma"?... below...

1. If Jeremiah's Babylon (ancient city of Nebuchanezzer) is destroyed never to rise again, how is it that 600 years later, long after Babylon fell to the Persians,     it receives the same prophecy in Revelation18?
2. Some would say, "Well, the 'system' of Babylon simply moved on to another city, so 600 years later the same prophecy could be repeated in Revelation 18."     But still, Babylon would have to "rise again" somewhere for Revelation to repeat that prophecy.
3. Can you legitimately declare Babylon has fallen, never to rise again, if it reemerges in another city? Does Jeremiah's prophecy really mean that the bricks     and mortar of ancient Babylon fell, while Revelation's prophecy means that the 'system' of Babylon lives on having simply rotated to another bricks and     mortar city, and it, too, is scheduled for a future fall? Why wouldn't Babylon "the system" just continue to move to another bricks and mortar city, ad-       infinitum, and make the prophecy totally meaningless?
4. Let's not make a mockery of prophecy and stretch its plain meaning to the irrational. The graphic below shows the confusion of this idea--that Babylon falls     twice, each time never to rise again...

5. Now, the 2 graphics (RIGHT) show the truth of the matter— and "irrational-prophecy" and confusion disappear. The Jeremiah prophecy refers to the same prophecy as Revelation. BOTH prophecies point to the same event...the FINAL FALL of Babylon, at the End Time, never to rise again.

Follow the direction of the arrows in both pictures.

Jeremiah and Revelation 18 are "book-end" prophecies...they correlate. Use your marginal verse references in Revelation 18 to see how many (and there are many) phrases and words refer back to Jeremiah 50 & 51 with parallel terms. This fact highlights the truth that both books are talking about the same Babylon in future prophecy.
Jeremiah 50-51 is a double-reference prophecy. Nebuchadnezzar's Babylon and End-Time Babylon prophecies are compressed into what is a single prophetic narrative, without distinction to time intervals. This is a common rhetorical devise of the Prophets. BUT NOTE: In ALL references the discussion NEVER changes from Babylon of CHALDEA ! 1
1. Jeremiah identifies the geo-ethnic identity of Babylon as "Chaldean" (50:1) "Chaldea" word forms are used in Jeremiah 50-51 ten (10) times, all in reference     to Babylon. Chaldeans were the people of Biblical Babylon, located in modern-day Iraq, the site of the original ancient city of Babylon. This specific     designator, "Chaldea", eliminates any reference to Babylon being any other city or nation outside of Iraq. 1 (bold-underlined numbers like this refer to     End Notes)
2. The TIME of Jeremiah's Babylon prophecies is set in the days of the Final Salvation of the Jews. (Jer. 50:4-5; 32:40), an event Paul says will happen at the End     Time (Rom. 11:25-27).
CONSIDER THIS: "The Babylon mentioned in 1Pe 5:13 was not Rome, as some have thought, but the literal city of Babylon, which was inhabited by many Jews                                 at the time Peter wrote."                                                   

                                Easton's Bible Dictionary, Thomas Nelson Publishing, 1897, "Babylon."
Recent DNA (Y chromosome) studies conducted by the National Geographic Magazine on the bones of ancient Babylonians and living people from Babil have shown that the modern peoples carry the same ancient Babylonian genetic material.
McCurry, Steve (2005-02-20). "History: Mesopotamia". National Geographic. http://java.nationalgeographic.com/studentatlas/clickup/mesopotamia.html.

The GOSPEL in Revelation:

                        The 5th verse from the beginning,

Jesus Christ...To Him who loves us, and released us from our sins by His blood, (Revelation 1:5

                        The 5th verse from the end,

"... And let the one who is thirsty come; let the one who wishes take the water of life without cost." (Revelation 22:17

The Book Of Revelation, apocalyptic and foreboding, is actually "FRAMED" by the GOSPEL OF SALVATION in Jesus Christ. Here's how you can be saved...