Revived Roman Empire
Daniel chapter 2’s vision of the Roman Empire is symbolized by the iron “legs” of the giant metallic statue. History bears out the understanding that the Roman Empire had a
1. Western-leg and,
2. an Eastern-leg
Ancient Rome was an Empire that incorporated two great halves—Europe (the Western-leg) and the Middle-East (the Eastern-leg). Bible prophecy foretells the revival of the Roman Empire in the Last Days. But what will the Revived Roman Empire look like? Will only the European leg be revived? Or will the Eastern leg also be revived?
A Revived Roman Empire limited to Europe is a Euro-centric Western Leg-only view. Likewise, a Revived Roman Empire limited to the Mid East is an Islamo-centric Eastern Leg-only view. Both views are “Half-Empire” views. But both Prophecy and history testify to a Rome-centric, 2-Leg Empire. While the Islamo-centric extreme is on the rise, many prophecy teachers today assert the other extreme—the Euro-centric Revived Roman Empire.
One Website seeks to discredit the Islamo-centric extreme by claiming that Rome’s Eastern half was irrelevant until the Empire’s official division in 286 AD. Writing in a popular prophecy magazine, this Website says that the West-East division of the Roman Empire is not a factor in End Time Prophecy because Rome did not appear as a 2-part West-East Empire until long after 70 AD (the date of an event relating the Roman Empire’s connection to the Antichrist, Dan. 9:26). We quote the Website below,
"Another idea ... is that the Roman Empire had both “Western” and “Eastern” components, and therefore the Antichrist could come from the Eastern wing which incorporates territory that is controlled today by Muslims.
While this was true in the later stages of the Empire, it was not true at the time of the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD. The emergence of the “Eastern” leg of the Roman Empire took place long after the destruction of the city and temple.
God has clearly revealed to us the ethnic origin of the Antichrist as spoken of in Daniel. We need to trust God, not “newspaper prophets.”
Chris Schang, Islamic Antichrist? “Three Strikes and You’re Out!”, The Lamplighter, Jul-Aug 2015, http://www.lamblion.com/xfiles/publications/magazines/Lamplighter_JulAug15_Graham.pdf
That is a common yet glaring blunder, both prophetically and historically. Rome was a West-East Empire long before it officially enacted its West-East division in 286 AD. Rome gained its Eastern-leg when it established the province of Pergamon in Asia Minor in 133 BC. This is 200 years before the 70 AD date mentioned above. The Empire’s official enactment of a West-East division in 286 AD simply enabled the efficient administration of an already existing 418-year-old West-East territorial spread of Rome. Rome’s EASTERN-leg was long established before the birth of Christ.
Here are some seldom acknowledged facts:
1. Rome’s Eastern-leg came FIRST (133 BC).
2. The Roman “Empire” came SECOND (31 BC).
3. This is explained by the fact that Rome was first a “Republic,” under which it gained Eastern territories. Only later did it become an Empire ruled by a single “Caesar,” the “Iron Empire” prophesied in Daniel 2.
4. Therefore Rome’s “Empire” stage BEGAN with both a Western-leg (Europe) and an Eastern-leg (Middle-East) already in existence.
5. This is exactly what is predicted by Daniel 2’s Statue where “iron” Rome BEGINS with TWO legs, not just one.
When did the EASTERN LEG Begin?
Atlas Of World History
[Rome’s] Expansion into the Middle East began in 133 [BC]...
Atlas Of World History, John Haywood, Fall River Press, New York, 2009, p.2.13.
Oxford Visualized World History
In 133 BC...Rome had acquired [territory] in the east as well as in the west. The Mediterranean had become a “Roman lake.”
Oxford Visualized World History, Philip Dorf, Oxford Book Co., New York, 1958, p. 47.
When did the ROMAN EMPIRE Begin?
Unger’s Bible Dictionary
The Battle of Actium in 31 BC resulted in Octavian, later called Augustus, becoming sole ruler. This marked the formal beginning of the Roman Empire [102 years after the establishment of the Eastern leg]… During his reign [31 BC-14 AD] Jesus was born and the New Testament era inaugurated.
UNGER’S BIBLE DICTIONARY, Merrill F. Unger, Moody Press, Chicago, IL, 1966, p.935.
Neither the Islamo-centric or the Euro-centric Revived Roman Empire is correct. Both amount to a one-legged Statue in Daniel 2. The authors cited below take great care with the consistent-Literal reading of Scripture and the clear record of history. When this is done, both the Western and Eastern legs of Daniel 2’s prophecy match the actual events of history and anticipate the full European/Middle Eastern span of the coming Revived Roman Empire.
Jesus & Paul were born in the already established Eastern-leg.
John F. Walvoord
“...at the time of the first advent of Christ Rome already was geographically spread over the East and the West. Prophetically it indicates that at the time of the end Rome again will involve both the East and the West.”
John F. Walvoord, Daniel, the Key to Prophetic Revelation, a Commentary, 1971, p.73.
William Graham Scroggie
“[Between the Old & New Testament periods] Rome became the World Power in the Middle East and West...Rome [had] unified the world...[and included] The intermixture of all races [by the time of Christ]
William Graham Scroggie, The Unfolding Drama Of Redemption, Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, MI, 1982, Vol. 1 p.38, Vol. 2 p.65, 77.
“...at the time of the New Testament the entire civilized world...went under Rome. From the Atlantic Ocean on the west to the Euphrates River ...one vast empire under ...“Augustus” (Luke 2:1) in the New Testament.”
Merrill Tenney, New Testament Survey, p.3,as quoted in Mal Couch, , Bible Handbook to the Acts Of The Apostles, Kregel Publications, Grand Rapids, MI, 1999, p.202.
God’s portrayal of Rome with two legs was very apt, for the ancient Roman Empire ruled extensive areas of both the western and eastern divisions of the world.
Renald Showers, The Most High God, A Commentary On The Book Of Daniel, The Friends Of Israel Gospel Ministry, Bellmawr, NJ, 1982, p.19.
The two legs in the image foretold the division of the fourth empire...into East and West…In fact it never did make sense to equate the revived Roman Empire with Western Europe because that was only a fraction of the ancient Roman Empire.
Dave Hunt, A Woman Rides the Beast, Harvest House, 1994, p.38; Dave Hunt, Global Peace, Harvest House, 1990, p.63.
The Iron & the Clay—Clash of Civilizations in the Revived Roman Empire?
Some object to an Eastern leg, believing a Muslim Middle East could never fit with “westernized” Europe. They say that would be a “CLASH OF CIVILIZATIONS.” But isn’t that exactly what the prophet Daniel foresaw?
"And in that you saw the feet and toes, partly of potter's clay and partly of iron, it will be a divided kingdom; but it will have in it the toughness of iron, inasmuch as you saw the iron mixed with common clay. "And as the toes of the feet were partly of iron and partly of pottery, so some of the kingdom will be strong and part of it will be brittle. "And in that you saw the iron mixed with common clay, they will combine with one another in the seed of men; but they will not adhere to one another, even as iron does not combine with pottery. (Dan. 2:41-43)
The Revived Roman Empire is symbolized in Daniel 2:41-43 as a mixture of IRON & CLAY cultures which exist at the End Time in a comingled, but segregated relationship.
The Roman Empire was the “IRON.” The “CLAY” is introduced into the Iron Empire, but cannot mix, or cleave, remaining divided from the IRON. (Dan. 2:43) This inability to intermix and assimilate signifies a Clash of Civilizations (“seed of men”, Dan. 2:43). The people and culture of Roman Heritage, and the people and culture of Muslim Heritage, though mixed & mingled together, cannot form a blended civilization. They remain divided by fundamental & irreconcilable world view differences.
History and current events amply testify to that situation in both Europe and the Mid East. If this situation today is not Daniel’s IRON-CLAY final stage in the making, there will arise another scene that looks just like it. Watch for an Eastern Leg in the Revived Roman Empire.
The signs of our time show that Jesus is near, and the time is short. Read John 3:16 & BELIEVE! Salvation is a Free Gift because Jesus Christ, the Son of God, died for our sins. He then was resurrected on the third day from the dead to Life, and gives anyone who believes in Him Eternal Life. Accept your gift of Eternal Life in Jesus Christ today by believing in Him.
In the stage-setting fulfillment of the Revived Roman Empire above, we see the Lord's very real prophetic act of also fulfilling His personal promise that
"I will be with you" throughout the life of a Believer. Even before we come to saving faith, we can review our life and realize that God has been with us in special, and sometimes critical, times.
Below...the quote from Psalm 23:6 agrees with many similar promise-prophecies, such as Hebrews 13:5,
" I will never desert you, nor will I ever forsake you", which applies both to this life and eternal life. Joshua received a very similar prophecy in Joshua 1:5, and at the end of his life declared
"not one word [of the Lord]...has failed" (23:14).It is the same for you.
God is fulfilling His prophecy to be "WITH YOU."