Bible Prophecy As Written
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But [Jesus] answered and said, "It is written, 'Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceeds from the mouth of God.'"  Matthew 4:4
 
Read the SUMMARY-INTRODUCTION first...

The PROMINENCE of the EASTERN LEG...

in the Revived Roman Empire

 Part 1


Table Of Contents

 

1. THE KING [ LAND ] OF THE NORTH

 

2. HERE’S WHY I EXPECT TO SEE…

              A Recognizable Revived Roman Empire—BOTH East & West

 

3. HERE’S WHY I EXPECT TO SEE…

An Eastern “Leg” of the Revived Roman

 

4. HERE’S WHY I EXPECT TO SEE…

A Prominent Eastern “Leg” in these Last Days

 

1. THE KING [ LAND ] OF THE NORTH

"... and the king of the North [Syria-Iraq] will ... enter the Beautiful Land [Israel], and many [Mid East] countries will fall… "Then he will stretch out his hand against other [Mid East] countries, and the land of Egypt will not escape.”

Daniel 11:40-42

 

THERE WILL BE…

 

1. A “King of the North”

2. In a “Land of the North”

3. Located in Syria-Iraq

4. In the Mid-East

5. In the “Bible Lands”

6. In the Eastern Leg of the Revived Roman Empire

7. In the Last Days


BELOW...

COMPARE these two maps. Left, from the 1993 book, The Assyrian Connection, & Right, (2016) ISIS, the Islamic State Of Iraq-Syria.

 

The map on the left above was created based on the Bible, not the headlines. When the headlines appeared for the first time in 2014-16 with the map on the right, the Bible didn't change, or adjust its meaning. If the headlines disappear and recede into history (as is so often the case), the prophetic truths of Scripture continue onward toward there ultimate fulfillment. With that in mind, I stated,


Newsletter, Sep. 2016, Bible Prophecy As Written,
"If this is not the fulfillment of Daniel’s prophecy, another such event will bring it to pass in the exact same territory. "


Mid-America Prophecy Conference, Apr. 2016, presentation handout on "Eastern Leg",
"This is the boundary of the coming King of the North, The Assyrian. If this Iraq-Syria "State" is not the final "King of the North," then there will be another Iraq-Syria "State" just like it in the future."


Today (2017), as ISIS control of Syria-Iraq recedes, another "King of the North" geo-pattern is arising,
There has arisen another "look-alike" to the King of the North--The Arc Of Influence Created By Iran (BELOW map, NBC News)

The map on the left above was created based on the Bible, not the headlines. When the headlines appeared for the first time in 2014-16 with the map on the right, the Bible didn't change, or adjust its meaning. If the headlines disappear and recede into history (as is so often the case), the prophetic truths of Scripture continue onward toward there ultimate fulfillment. With that in mind, I stated,


Newsletter, Sep. 2016, Bible Prophecy As Written,
"If this is not the fulfillment of Daniel’s prophecy, another such event will bring it to pass in the exact same territory. "


Mid-America Prophecy Conference, Apr. 2016, presentation handout on "Eastern Leg",
"This is the boundary of the coming King of the North, The Assyrian. If this Iraq-Syria "State" is not the final "King of the North," then there will be another Iraq-Syria "State" just like it in the future."


Today (2017), as ISIS control of Syria-Iraq recedes, another "King of the North" geo-pattern is arising,
There has arisen another "look-alike" to the King of the North--The Arc Of Influence Created By Iran (Above right map, NBC News)

2. HERE’S WHY I EXPECT TO SEE…

A Recognizable Revived Roman Empire—BOTH East & West

 

1. Israel—recognizable 2000 years later...North & South reunited in the Last Days. In like manner, Rome to be revived, East & West, with recognizable borders, in the Last Days.

 



BELOW: Just as the 2 sticks portray the

known Land of Israel, so too do the 2 legs portray the known Land of the Roman Empire. (Eze. 37:21; Dan. 2:41)

Israel—

BOTH “sticks,” North & South


 

BELOW: The Revived Roman Empire—

BOTH “legs,” West (Europe) & East (Mid-East) 



THE BOUNDARIES

OF THE REVIVED ROMAN EMPIRE

 

Arthur W. Pink (“the classic work on the end times” -Dictionary of Premillennial Theology )

This Kingdom will be divided into ten parts, over which will be the ten kings (7:24). This kingdom will be, we believe, the old Roman Empire revived in its final form, and divided into two great halves — the Eastern and the Western. This fourth kingdom will include within itself all the territory and will perpetuate all the dominant characteristics of the other three which have preceded it, i.e. the Babylonian, the Medo-Persian, and Grecian [EASTERN LEG].

Arthur W. Pink, The Antichrist, I. C. Herendeen, Bible Truth Depot, Swengel, PA, p.52.

 

 

John F. Walvoord

These [10] nations will likely come from the territory occupied by the ancient Roman Empire. Though not named, presumably the liaison will include Italy, the capital country of the Roman Empire. Others, such as Spain, France, and Greece, and possibly some nations from Western Asia and Northern Africa will likely be included.

John F. Walvoord, Prophecy, 14 Essential Keys to Understanding the Final Drama, Thomas nelson, 1993, p.57.

 

Arno Froese

I venture to say, therefore, that Israel and the former Roman Mediterranean countries will be accepted into the European Union in the future.

Arno Froese, How Democracy Will Elect The Antichrist, The Olive Press, 1997, p.130.

 

John F. Walvoord

The Roman Empire embraced a much wider territory [than the Greek Empire] in which the Western division became fully as strong as the Eastern, and this seems to be portrayed by the two legs...The feet portion of the image representing the final stage will also include on an equal basis the Eastern and Western areas once possessed by ancient Rome.

John F. Walvoord, Daniel, the Key to Prophetic Revelation, a Commentary, 1971, p.73-74.

 

John F. Walvoord

“The geographic area of these kingdoms [of Dan. 2] is involved in the final chapters of world history.”

John F. Walvoord, The Nations In Prophecy, Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, MI, 1967, p.59-60.

 

Clarence Larkin

“preceding the rise of the Antichrist the nations that will then be found in the geographical limits of the Old Roman Empire will form an ‘Alliance’ for mutual protection. Those nations will be ten in number...”                  

Clarence Larkin, Dispensational Truth, Larkin Est., Glenside, PA, 1918, p.122, cmp. Chart ‘Map Old Roman Empire.’

 

Erwin W. Lutzer

“The fulfillment of Daniel’s prophecy would not require that the exact boundaries be a part of the revived Empire, since the ancient boundaries themselves sometimes changed. But we would expect that essentially the same territory would be encompassed...” [though Lutzer is Euro-centric, p. 18)                  

Erwin W. Lutzer, Coming To Grips With The Role Of Europe In Prophecy, Moody Press., Chicago, IL, 1990, p.17.

 

David Reagan

The 10 toes represent 10 kings who “would be a lose confederation of ten rulers…” [ who ] “would arise out of the territory of the empire of iron—the Roman Empire (Daniel 7:7-8).”

“...the last Gentile empire of history would be a confederation of ten units that would be located in the area of the old Roman Empire (Daniel 7:1-8).”

David Reagan, God’s Plan For The Ages, Lamb & Lion Ministries, McKinney, TX, 2005, , p. 81, 91.

Grant Jeffrey

It is possible that the ultimate kingdom of the Antichrist will contain the geographical territory encompassing all four past empires. [all the way EAST to Iran]

Grant Jeffrey, The Prince of Darkness, Frontier Research Publications, 1994, p. 215.

 

2.Bible Lands—recognizable 2500 years later.

Psalm 83 is a typical, representative list of End Time Bible Lands, which dominate the narrative throughout prophetic Scripture.

 

3.Antichrist beacons the kings of the earth.

There are other kings outside of the 10-king Revived Roman Empire. Thus it is not global, but has boundaries, being the base-kingdom from which it controls the world.

 

4. The 10 kings are already a boundaried-empire when Antichrist arises “among them,” not “among the world” somewhere.

Daniel 7:8; The Antichrist arises within a singular-kingdom, proscribed by the boundaries of a federation of 10 nations, among other kingdoms (i.e., “the kings [plural] of the East, Rev. 16)

 

5.Greek template-facsimile.

4 kingdoms arose from WITHIN the known boundaries of the Greek Empire (Dan. 8:22; fulfilled prophecy).

Using the principal of the “Bible is its own best commentary,” we therefore expect that...

10 kingdoms will arise from WITHIN the known boundaries of the Revived Roman Empire (Dan. 7:24; future prophecy).

 

6.Eastern leg of Rome is not the Eastern Hemisphere of the world.

China has nothing to do with Rome (“Kings of East,” sub-Sahara Africa or Russia are not Roman “zones”, as a worldwide, 10-global-zone Antichrist empire would require).

 

3. HERE’S WHY I EXPECT TO SEE…

An Eastern “Leg” of the

Revived Roman

A Revived Roman Empire limited to Europe is a Euro-centric Western Leg-only view. Likewise, a Revived Roman Empire limited to the Mid East is an Islamo-centric Eastern Leg-only view. Prophecy & history testify to a Rome-centric, 2-Leg Empire. While Islamo-centric is on the rise, too many prophecy teachers today cling to the other Extreme—the Euro-centric Revived Roman Empire. The authors cited below take the Literal reading of Scripture consistently.

 

 

 

Grant Jeffrey

Thousands of years ago the prophet saw a revived Roman Empire rising in Europe from the ruins of the ancient empire...that once ruled from Britain to the deserts of Syria...I pointed out that the present European Community encompasses only the nations of the western portion of the ancient Roman Empire. Daniel 2 described the prophetic symbol of a man with two iron legs, representing the Eastern and Western Roman Empires. In its final form the symbolic image contained two feet with ten clay and iron toes. This image, with five toes on each foot suggests that final revived form of the Roman Empire will include nations from both the former Western and Eastern Roman Empire. Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria belonged to the Eastern Byzantine Empire...Therefore I pointed out the possibility that the kingdom of the Antichrist will ultimately expand to encompass some of these nations as well as Western Europe.

Grant Jeffrey, The Prince of Darkness, Frontier Research Publications, 1994, p.122.

 

Renald Showers

God’s portrayal of Rome with two legs was very apt, for the ancient Roman Empire ruled extensive areas of both the western and eastern divisions of the world. In fact, in 364 A.D. the Roman Empire was divided politically into two divisions—the Western Roman Empire with Rome as its capital and the Eastern Roman Empire with Constantinople as its capital.

Renald Showers, The Most High God, A Commentary On The Book Of Daniel, The Friends Of Israel Gospel Ministry, Bellmawr, NJ, 1982, p.19.

 

Dave Hunt

The two legs in the image foretold the division of the fourth empire...into East and West…

Dave Hunt, A Woman Rides the Beast, Harvest House, 1994, p.38.


1.There are 2 legs—& 2 feet—on the Statue of Daniel—not 1 leg & 1 foot.

 

Dave Hunt

In fact it never did make sense to equate the revived Roman Empire with Western Europe because that was only a fraction of the ancient Roman Empire.

Dave Hunt, Global Peace, Harvest House, 1990, p.63.

 

New Scofield Reference Bible

The latter power is seen divided, first into two (the legs), fulfilled in the Eastern and Western Roman Empires…

New Scofield Reference Bible, Oxford Press, 1967, p.899.

 

David Reagan

The empire represented by the iron legs was never specifically identified, but we know from history that it was the Roman Empire which eventually split into two parts, the Eastern and Western Empires.

David Reagan, God’s Plan For The Ages, Lamb & Lion Ministries, McKinney, TX, 2005, p.80.

 

Jim Combs

By 395 A.D. there was an emperor in the East at Constantinople and an emperor in the West at Rome... These were the two legs of iron, astride the earth.

Jim Combs, Mysteries of the Book of Daniel, Tribune Publishers, 1994, p.36.

 

John F. Walvoord

Two legs were an apt portrayal of Rome, for the ancient Roman Empire ruled extensive areas of both the western and eastern divisions of the world…[The feet and ten toes] represented the Roman Empire in its final stage of existence in contrast with its earlier leg stage.

John F. Walvoord, Countdown to Armageddon, Harvest House, 1999, p.60.

 

John Phillips

“The iron legs of the image stood for the Roman Empire...the image into two legs foreshadowed the ultimate division of the Roman Empire into two empires. Our history books tell us how, for many centuries, two Roman empires flourished—one in the west ruled, as always, from Rome and the other in the east ruled from Constantinople.”

John Phillips, Exploring The Future, Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1983, p.34.

 

Ed Hindson

The statue’s two legs (Daniel 2:33) seem to indicate the division of Rome into East (Greek-speaking Constantinople) and West (Latin-speaking Rome).

Ed Hindson, Is the Antichrist Alive and Well?, Harvest House, 1998. P.130.

 

 

GREEK PRECEDENT FOR THE ROMAN EMPIRE EASTERN LEG

The “east” sectors of Rome are still Rome just as Dan 8:22 says

the “east” sectors of Greece are still Greece.

 

“Alexander dreamed of blending east and west into one.”

Exploring The Book Of Daniel, John Phillips & Jerry Vines, Loizeaux Brothers, Neptune, NJ, 1990, p.239

 

The Record of History—Rome, BOTH Europe & Mid East

An Atlas Of World History

The achievement of the ancient Romans was to unite the entire Mediterranean Basin into one polity.

An Atlas Of World History, Gerald A. Danzer, Borders Group, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI, 2000, p. 38

 

World History College Outline Series

Diocletian’s division of the empire into two administrative halves eventually led to the formation of two separate states.

World History To 1648, Harper-Collins College Outline Series, p.149

 

World History College Outline Series

[Diocletian’s] division of the empire into eastern and western halves made excellent sense from an administrative point of view.

World History To 1648, Harper-Collins College Outline Series, p.147

 

World History Review Text

To simplify government, he [Emperor Diocletian] divided the Empire into East and West—each portion administered separately.

World History Review Text, Irving L. Gordon, Amsco School Publications, Inc., New York, NY, 1973, p. 78. p. 55.

 

World History Review Text

By the 4th century A.D. the Roman Empire was divided into two parts: the West governed from Rome and the East governed from Constantinople.

World History Review Text, Irving L. Gordon, Amsco School Publications, Inc., New York, NY, 1973, p. 78

 

An Atlas Of World History

Constantinople [ Eastern Rome ] after 340 CE became the major seat of the Roman Empire.

An Atlas Of World History, Gerald A. Danzer, Borders Group, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI, 2000, p. 39.

 

Random House Encyclopedia

“In AD 293, Emperor Diocletian decided...to shift the center of the Roman Empire to the east. The new state, [was] known as the Byzantine, or Eastern Roman Empire…”

Random House Encyclopedia. James Mitchell, ed. Random House, New York, 1983, p. 1056

 

2.The West-East legs appeared 1st in the Greek “thighs.”

The west-east meaning of the Greek “thighs”, Dan. 2:32, 39

“Alexander dreamed of blending east and west into one.”

(Exploring The Book Of Daniel, John Phillips & Jerry Vines, Loizeaux Brothers, Neptune, NJ, 1990, p.239)

 

3.Rome’s Eastern-leg came 1st, then the Empire “Kingdom” came 2nd.

(This is explained by the fact that Rome was first a “Republic,” before it became the “Iron Empire. Also, notice that in Daniel 2’s Statue, Rome BEGINS with 2 legs.)

 

One Website, writing in a popular prophecy magazine, says that the West-East division of the Roman Empire is not a factor in End Time Prophecy because Rome did not appear as a 2-part West-East Empire until long after 70 AD (the date of an event relating the Roman Empire’s connection to the Antichrist, Dan. 9:26). We quote the Website below,


Another idea ... is that the Roman Empire had both “Western” and “Eastern” components, and therefore the Antichrist could come from the Eastern wing which incorporates territory that is controlled today by Muslims.

While this was true in the later stages of the Empire, it was not true at the time of the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD. The emergence of the “Eastern” leg of the Roman Empire took place long after the destruction of the city and temple.

God has clearly revealed to us the ethnic origin of the Antichrist as spoken of in Daniel. We need to trust God, not “newspaper prophets.”

Chris Schang, Islamic Antichrist? “Three Strikes and You’re Out!”, The Lamplighter, Jul-Aug 2015, http://www.lamblion.com/xfiles/publications/magazines/Lamplighter_JulAug15_Graham.pdf

 

That is a common yet glaring blunder, both prophetically and historically. Rome was a West-East Empire long before it officially enacted its West-East division in 286 AD. Rome gained its Eastern-leg when it established the province of Pergamon in Asia Minor in 133 BC. (All historical atlases show this fact) This is 200 years before the 70 AD date. The administrative division made ‘efficient’ an already existing fact.

 

THE BEGINNING POINT OF THE EASTERN LEG

Atlas Of World History

Expansion into the Middle East began in 133, when the last king of Pergamon bequeathed his kingdom to Rome, and Pergamon became the province of Asia.

Atlas Of World History, John Haywood, Fall River Press, New York, 2009, p.2.13.

 

Oxford Visualized World History

In 133 BC, the ruler of Pergamum, a country in Asia Minor, left his territory to Rome upon his death. Almost casually, Rome had acquired an empire in the east as well as in the west. The Mediterranean had become a “Roman lake.”

Oxford Visualized World History, Philip Dorf, Oxford Book Co., New York, 1958,   p. 47.

 

UNGER’S BIBLE DICTIONARY

Pompey formed Pontus, Syria and Cilicia as provinces in 64-63 BC. He conquered Palestine in 63 BC.

UNGER’S BIBLE DICTIONARY, Merrill F. Unger, Moody Press, Chicago, IL, 1966, p.935.

 

THE BEGINNING POINT OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE

UNGER’S BIBLE DICTIONARY

The Battle of Actium in 31 BC resulted in Octavian, later called Augustus, becoming sole ruler. This marked the formal beginning of the Roman Empire [102 years after the establishment of the eastern leg]… During his reign [31 BC-14 AD] Jesus was born and the New Testament era inaugurated.

UNGER’S BIBLE DICTIONARY, Merrill F. Unger, Moody Press, Chicago, IL, 1966, p.935.

 

4. Jesus & Paul were born in the ALREADY ESTABLISHED Eastern-leg.

 

John F. Walvoord

“...at the time of the first advent of Christ Rome already was geographically spread over the East and the West. Prophetically it indicates that at the time of the end Rome again will involve both the East and the West.”

John F. Walvoord, Daniel, the Key to Prophetic Revelation, a Commentary, 1971, p.73.

 

William Graham Scroggie

“And in this period [between the Old & New Testament periods] Rome became the World Power in the Middle East and West...their ambition was to unite the world in a colossal Empire which would reach from the Euphrates to the Atlantic, and which would embrace 100,000,000 human beings...Rome [had] unified the world...when Christ came...the Empire embraced all men...The intermixture of all races [by the time of Christ]...

William Graham Scroggie, The Unfolding Drama Of Redemption, Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, MI, 1982, Vol. 1 p.38, Vol. 2 p.65, 77.

 

Merrill Tenney

“...at the time of the New Testament the entire civilized world, except for little-known kingdoms of the Far East, went under Rome. From the Atlantic Ocean on the west to the Euphrates River ...one vast empire under the headship and virtual dictatorship of the emperor, called both “king” (1 Peter 2:17) and “Augustus” (Luke 2:1) in the New Testament.”

Merrill Tenney, New Testament Survey, p.3,as quoted in Mal Couch, gen. ed., The Bible Handbook to the Acts Of The Apostles, Kregel Publications, Grand Rapids, MI, 1999, p.202.

 

Joseph & Mary, in the EASTERN Roman Empire, obey the census.

“Now it came about in those days that a decree went out from Caesar Augustus, that a census be taken of all the inhabited earth. This was the first census taken while Quirinius was governor of Syria. And all were proceeding to register for the census, everyone to his own city. And Joseph also went up from Galilee, from the city of Nazareth, to Judea, to the city of David, which is called Bethlehem, because he was of the house and family of David…” (Luke 2:1-4)

 

PAUL, born in the EASTERN LEG, was a ROMAN,

...as well as a Jew, Israelite, a Hebrew…

“And the commander came and said to him,

"Tell me, are you a Roman?"

And he said, "Yes”

“...I was actually born a citizen [in Tarsus, Asia Minor, on border of Syria; “

Paul was a Roman who had never yet been to Rome-City, “I must also see Rome." (Acts 19:21)]." (Acts 22:27-28; 16:37-38; 23:27)

“ I am a Jew…” (Acts 22:3); I too am an Israelite” (Rom.11:1); “a Hebrew of Hebrews” (Phi. 3:4-5).

 

New Testament era began in pre-existing EASTERN Roman Empire

 

John F. Walvoord

“...at the time of the first advent of Christ Rome already was geographically spread over the East and the West. Prophetically it indicates that at the time of the end Rome again will involve both the East and the West.”

John F. Walvoord, Daniel, the Key to Prophetic Revelation, a Commentary, 1971, p.73.

 

The Life And Epistles Of St. Paul

“[Prior to the New Testament times] the Roman power approached to the eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea...and had turned its eye towards the East” “...before the birth of our Saviour, all those coasts, from Ephesus to Tarsus and Antioch [Turkey], and round by the Holy Land to Alexandria [Egypt], were tributary to the city of the Tiber [Rome]” ...the Romans had already become Greek [Greco-Roman] to some considerable extent, before they were the political masters of those eastern countries...When all parts of the civilized world were bound together in one empire...then was ‘the fullness of time’ (Gal. 4:4).”

Conybeare & Howson, The Life And Epistles Of St. Paul, Eerdman’s Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, MI, 1856, 1974, p.9, 10, 13.

 Biblical Backgrounds

“Herodian Palestine...A Greco-Roman State” “...Roman legions pressed on, to lay in the Middle East solid foundations of law and order for the oriental section of the Roman Empire, to hold it intact and to administer it effectively.”

J. McKee Adams and Joseph A. Callaway, Biblical Backgrounds, Broadman Press, Nashville TN, 1965, p.143 , 184.

 

Oxford Bible Atlas

“According to Luke 2:1 Augustus Caesar ruled ’the whole oikumene’ (inhabited world)…[by 27AD, 25 years BEFORE Christ] an area roughly bounded by the Atlantic, Britain (invaded ad 43), the Rhine, Danube, and Euphrates, and the Arabian and Sahara deserts.”

Oxford Bible Atlas, 2nd Edition, Oxford University Press, London,1962, 1978, p. 88.


David H. Stern, Messianic Jewish Commentator

“…[In Acts 2:6-11, at Pentecost] a representative list of Roman Empire nations is given.” [mostly Eastern]

David H. Stern, Jewish New Testament Commentary, Jewish New Testament Publications, Clarksville, MD, 1992, p. 222.

 

The Life And Epistles Of St. Paul

“...Judea, once the country of promise and possession to the chosen people, but a Roman province in the time of the Apostles.””

Conybeare & Howson, The Life And Epistles Of St. Paul, Eerdman’s Publishing Co., Grand Rapids, MI, 1856, 1974, p.17.

 

UNGER’S BIBLE DICTIONARY

The Battle of Actium in 31 BC resulted in Octavian, later called Augustus, becoming sole ruler. This marked the formal beginning of the Roman Empire… During his reign [31 BC-14 AD] Jesus was born and the New Testament era inaugurated.

UNGER’S BIBLE DICTIONARY, Merrill F. Unger, Moody Press, Chicago, IL, 1966, p.935.

 

 

Alfred Edersheim

“When after capturing Jerusalem [ Roman Emperor Pompey, 63 BC, 60 years BEFORE Christ ]… the country [ Israel ] was now tributary to Rome, and subject to the Governor of Syria.” [ EASTERN Leg of the Roman Empire ]

Alfred Edersheim, The Life And Times Of Jesus The Messiah, Eerdmans Publishing, Grand Rapids, MI, 1883, 1971, Vol. 1 p.122-123.

 

THE NEW TESTAMENT STORY OPENED IN THE EASTERN LEG

 

SMITHS BIBLE DICTIONARY

Map of the Ancient Roman Empire (First Century A.D.)

The Roman Empire in the time of Jesus Christ and the Apostles. The order which prevailed in this extensive empire, the good military roads, and the use of Koine Greek as the general language of culture throughout the area were among the factors which multiplied the rapid spread of the Gospel of Jesus Christ.  [The very existence of the Greco-Roman Eastern Leg facilitated the SPREAD OF THE GOSPEL]

 

The Boundaries of the Roman Empire were:

North: The British Channel, the Rhine, the Danube, and the Black Sea

South: The deserts of Africa, the cataracts of the Nile, & the Arabian deserts

East: The Euphrates

West: The Atlantic

 

Roman empire

        1. The first historic mention of Rome in the Bible is in 1 Macc. 1:10, about the year 161 B.C. In the year 65 B.C., when Syria was made a Roman province by Pompey, the Jews were still governed by one of the Asmonaean princes. The next year Pompey himself marched an army into Judea and took Jerusalem. From this time [ 60 years BEFORE Christ—the Eastern Leg ] the Jews were practically under the government of Rome. Finally, Antipater's son Herod the Great was made king by Antony's interest, B.C. 40, and confirmed in the kingdom by Augustus, B.C. 30. The Jews, however, were all this time tributaries of Rome, and their princes in reality were Roman procurators, On the banishment of Archelaus, A.D. 6, Judea became a mere appendage of the province of Syria, and was governed by a Roman procurator, who resided at Caesarea. Such were the relations of the Jewish people to the Roman government at the time when the New Testament history begins.

 

         2. Extent of the empire [ BEFORE the birth of Christ ]— Pompey added Asia Minor and Syria. Caesar added Gaul. The generals of Augustus overran the northwest Portion of Spain and the country between the Alps and the Danube. The boundaries of the empire were now the Atlantic on the west, the Euphrates on the east, the deserts of Africa, the cataracts of the Nile and the Arabian deserts on the south, the British Channel, the Rhine, the Danube and the Black Sea on the north.

Roman Empire in the Smith's Bible Dictionary, William Smith, Hendrickson Publishers, Peabody, MA, 1863 & 2000, p.567-568.


5.The Eastern-leg of Rome extended to Mesopotamia, Assyria, & even Persia.

G. H. Pember

“In the days of Augustus, [27-14BC]  the Roman Empire extended from the Atlantic in the West to the Euphrates in the East; ...Trajan [98-117 AD] acquired the vast tract of Dacia, and organized as provinces Armenia [part of Persia], Mesopotamia [including Ctesiphon, capital of Persia], and Assyria. In the reign of Diocletian [284-286 AD], Persia was forced to a formal surrender of Mesopotamia, together with five provinces beyond the Tigris. Such was the greatest extent of Rome in her first, or iron development. In the brief time of her second, or clay-iron power, the prophecy seems to require that her boundaries should be pushed still farther in more than one direction.”

G. H. Pember, The Great Prophecies of the Centuries, p.212, as quoted in Lehman Strauss, The Prophecies Of Daniel, Loizeaux Brothers, Neptune, NJ, 1969,  p.73.

 

Assyria (Roman Province)

Assyria was one of three provinces (with Armenia and Mesopotamia) created by the Roman Emperor Trajan in 116 AD...Hadrian’s withdrawal from Assyria and its neighboring provinces in 118 AD did not mark the end of Roman rule in this region… Severus instituted two new Roman provinces—Osroene (a neo-Assyrian kingdom …” ...and Mesopotamia [in 198 AD, lasting 165 years]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assyria_(Roman_province)

 

Roman Lands In Persia

Mark Antony...conquered in 33 BC some areas of Atropatene (northern Iran)...that was the first time that Romans occupied a Persian territory…

...in 113 AD Trajan invaded Parthia [Persia/Iran] ...annexed Armenia [Persian province] to the Roman empire...turned south into Parthia [Persia/Iran]  itself, taking the cities of Babylon, Seleucia and finally the capital of Parthia [Persia/Iran] Ctesiphon in 116 AD.

In AD 298 the province of Mesopotamia, together with even some territory from across the river Tigris (in western Iran/Persia/Parthia) was restored to Rome for half a century…

Trajan created even the [Roman] province of Assyria...

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romans_in_Persia#/media/File:Mapa_del_Conf%C3%ADn_del_Imperio_Romano.gif

 

Roman Lands In Persia

Mesopotamia [Assyria-Babylon] was the name of two distinct Roman provinces...Emperor Trajan in 116-117...Emperor Severus 198 AD, which ranged between the Roman and Sassanid [NEO-PERSIAN] empires, until the Muslim conquests of the 7th Century [400 years].

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assyria_(Roman_province)

 

THE ROMAN EMPIRE, KELLY [classic history]

Then the empire stretched from Hadrian's Wall in drizzle-soaked northern England to the sunbaked banks of the Euphrates in Syria; from the great Rhine–Danube river system, which snaked across the fertile, flat lands of Europe from the Low Countries to the Black Sea, to the rich plains of the North African coast and the luxuriant gash of the Nile Valley in Egypt. The empire completely circled the Mediterranean ... referred to by its conquerors as mare nostrum—'our sea'.

Christopher Kelly, The Roman Empire: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, 2006, p.1)

 

Clarence Larkin

“These “Four Horns” stood for the four Generals of Alexander’s army who divided his Kingdom among themselves...Seleucus took the remainder of Asia Minor and the East, including Syria and Assyria...These Four Kingdoms were in time all absorbed into the Fourth World Kingdom, the Roman Empire.”

Clarence. Larkin, Dispensational Truth. Glenside, Pennsylvania: Rev. Clarence Larkin Est., 1920, p.70.

 

6.The Stone from heaven (Christ) crushes both legs, not just one.

 

7.LITERAL interpretation.


4. HERE’S WHY I EXPECT TO SEE…

A Prominent Eastern “Leg” in these Last Days

Now, note the emphases in the visions of both Daniel & Revelation on the eastern half of the Roman Empire, & Revived Rome!  The named kingdoms—Babylon, Persia, Greece, & her 4 parts (Greece, Turkey, Egypt, Assyria)—are all firmly rooted in the eastern sector.  What about the focus of Daniel chapters 8 & 11?—again, the eastern sector.  And the beasts characteristics of the Revelation Antichrist Beast?—the eastern sector.  Most prophecy writers talk of Rome as though it were strictly Europe.  They discuss the Revived Roman Empire as though it will develop exclusively within a European configuration.  The unification of Europe is of great significance in this regard—but as the WESTERN LEG only.  But Europe is not—& was not—the whole of the Roman Empire.  The statue of Daniel 2 shows two apparently equal halves, & the End Time prophecies consistently gravitate to the East.

 

1. The Eastern-leg outlasted the Western-leg by 1000 years.

Essentials Of World History

In 476 the western kingdom fell...and ended the Roman Empire in the West. In the East, the Empire (Byzantium) successfully resisted the barbarians and...lasted another thousand years.

Essentials Of World History, Revised Ed., Jean Reeder Smith & Lacey Baldwin Smith, Barron’s Educational Series, Inc., Woodbury, NY, 1980, p.60

 

World History Review Text

Although the Western Roman Empire fell to the Germanic invaders by 476, the eastern part survived independently until 1453, an additional thousand years.

World History Review Text, Irving L. Gordon, Amsco School Publications, Inc., New York, NY, 1973, p. 78.

 

2. Daniel’s Statue is dominated by Eastern kingdoms.

Daniel 2 says that 6 EASTERN nations identified on the Statue (in this order, with their modern names; Iraq, Iran, & 4-part Greece/Egypt/Syria/Turkey; Dan. 2:38-40; 7:17; 8:20-22; 11:2-4)  will exist in the last days, and will not be destroyed until the destruction of the Revived Roman Empire at the Second Coming of Christ. (Daniel 2:35, 44; These are not just “kingdom-traits”, but a statement of the TIME of their destruction).

 

John F. Walvoord

“The geographic area of these kingdoms [Babylon, Persia, Greece, Dan. 2] is involved in the final chapters of world history...inasmuch as the revived Roman Empire to some extent is viewed as including the three preceding empires which were largely Asiatic.

John F. Walvoord, The Nations In Prophecy, Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, MI, 1967, p.59-60, 90.

 

3. Revelation’s Beast is dominated by Eastern kingdoms.

EASTERN LEG KINGDOMS DOMINATED the ROMAN EMPIRE

(The 7 “Heads”—Empires—Mountain-Kingdoms—of Prophecy; Dan. 7 & Rev. 17)

 

1. Egypt: “...one of the major powers of the ancient world.” (Random House Encyclopedia)

 

2. Assyria: “...unified all of the ancient Near East for the first time.” (Civilization Past and Present)

 

3. Babylon: “[Nebuchadnezzar] was undoubtedly the greatest king of his day.” (A Concise History of the World)

 

4. Persia: “...during its height...the greatest in area and accomplishment the world had then known.”    (Random House Encyclopedia)


5. Greece: “...the greatest empire the ancient world had ever known.” (Random House Encyclopedia)

 

6. Rome: “The center of the greatest empire in the world…” (Time-Life Books Timeframe)

 

4. Israel, the focus of Prophecy, is in the Eastern Leg.

 

5. The “Bible Lands” arise at the End Time—in the Eastern Leg.

Why does Bible Prophecy persistently retrain the geographic-eye to the Mid East at the End Time?

 

6. Babylon, the capital of the Antichrist, is in the Eastern Leg.

Charles Dyer

He will come from the Roman Empire...The Apostle John pictures the revived Roman Empire dominated by a Middle Eastern power centered in Babylon.

Charles Dyer, World News and Bible Prophecy, Tyndale House, 1993, p.202-5.

 

Babylon means Babylon—not Rome

 

John F. Walvoord

The confusion of the seven heads of the beasts with the seven hills of Rome, however, arises from inattention to what the passage states.  John was informed, “They are also seven kings” (v.10).  If the hills represent kings, then they do not refer to the seven hills of Rome, and the whole conclusion that Rome is the capital of ecclesiastical Babylon is brought into question. Further, a statement is made, “Five have fallen, one is, the other has not yet come; but when he does come, he must remain for a little while” (v.10).  This could not refer to hills.

John F. Walvoord, The Prophecy Knowledge Handbook, Victor Books, 1990, p. 608.

 

Literal Babylon to be Rebuilt

Arnold Fruchtenbaum

...Babylon is to be rebuilt and become the Antichrist’s world-wide political and economic capital of the world.             

Arnold Fruchtenbaum, The Footsteps of the Messiah, Ariel Ministries Press, 1983, p. 192.

 

David Reagan

 [there is] “a strong biblical basis for [a literal] Babylon” [in Revelation 18.]

David Reagan, Wrath And Glory, Lamb & Lion Ministries, McKinney, TX, p. 171.

 

Thomas Ice and Timothy Demy

In the Bible, “east” refers to the region of Mesopotamia (Assyria and Babylon), and the drying up of the river will make it easier for the forces of Antichrist to assemble out of Babylon, which is his capital.

Thomas Ice and Timothy Demy, Prophecy Watch, Harvest House, 1998, p. 188.

 

Grant Jeffrey

The antichrist will take the title “king of Babylon” (Isa. 14:4) indicating his close connection with the wicked Babylonian empire during the tribulation….Modern-day Iraq occupies the location of ancient Babylon.

Grant Jeffrey, Prophecy Marked Reference Study Bible, Zondervan, 1998, p.1473.

 

Clarence Larkin

“...the city of Babylon will be rebuilt almost in a night and on a scale of magnificence such as the world has never seen.”

Clarence Larkin, Dispensational Truth. Glenside, Pennsylvania: Rev. Clarence Larkin Est., 1920, p.143.

 

Charles Dyer

“I can find no time in history when it can be said conclusively that Babylon ceased to exist. Her population has risen and fallen through the ages, but there has never been a time when the city has been completely abandoned... Babylon’s fortunes have declined, but the city has never been destroyed.”

Charles Dyer, The Rise of Babylon. Wheaton, Illinois: Tyndale House, 1991, p.130-131.

 

Mark Hitchcock

“Babylon will be the great religious, economic capital of the Antichrist’s kingdom in the last days.”

Mark Hitchcock, The Complete Book Of Bible Prophecy, Tyndale House Publishers, Wheaton, IL, 1999,  p.97.

 

Mark Hitchcock

“...Babylon, the literal city on the  Euphrates in modern-day Iraq, will be rebuilt in the last days.”

Mark Hitchcock, The Complete Book Of Bible Prophecy, Tyndale House Publishers, Wheaton, IL, 1999,  p.97.

 

John F. Walvoord

“Babylon continued to be inhabited in some form or other as late as AD 1000.”

John F. Walvoord, The Nations In Prophecy, Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, MI, 1967, p.58.

 

Arthur W. Pink (“the classic work on the end times” -Dictionary of Premillennial Theology )

“...there is to be a re-built Babylon, over which the Antichrist shall reign during the Time of the End.

Arthur W. Pink, The Antichrist, I. C. Herendeen, Bible Truth Depot, Swengel, PA, p.133.

 

Arthur W. Pink (“the classic work on the end times” -Dictionary of Premillennial Theology )

"If the reader still insists that the Babylon of Rev. 17 and 18 is the ultimate development of the Papacy as it envelopes apostate Christendom, it is useless to discuss the subject any farther. But we believe that the great majority of our readers — who have no traditions to uphold — will be satisfied that the Babylon of the Apocalypse is the Babylon of Old Testament prophecy, namely, a literal, re-built city in “the land of Nimrod” (Micah 5:6, [ i.e. ASSYRIA] )..."

Arthur W. Pink, The Antichrist, I. C. Herendeen, Bible Truth Depot, Swengel, PA, p.153.

 

 

John Phillips

“One of the titles the Antichrist will wear is “king of the north,” ...In the context of Daniel 11, the “king of the north” is always Syria; ... the Antichrist himself will probably be at Babylon, his new world capital.

John Phillips, Exploring The Future, Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1983, p.54.

 

 

Joseph A. Seiss (in 1900 predicted the Rebirth of Israel, & predicted a Rebuilt Babylon)

" I conclude, then, that such a great commercial city, different from all that now exist, will yet be, and that it will be old Babylon rebuilt.”

Joseph A. Seiss, The Apocalypse, Kregel Publications, Grand Rapids, MI, 1900, 1983, p.403.

 

 

William R. Newell (in 1935 predicted the Rebirth of Israel, & predicted a Rebuilt Babylon)

" The final form of Babylon is the literal city on the Euphrates, rebuilt as Antichrist’s capital of the last days, opposing Israel as God’s earthly people.”

William R. Newell, Revelation, A Complete Commentary, World Bible Publishers, Iowa Falls, Iowa, 1935, 1987, p.272..

 

 

“The best commentary on Revelation…

Dr. Henry Morris”, David Reagan

"The best commentary I have ever read on the Book of Revelation is one called The Revelation Record by Dr. Henry Morris."

David Reagan, Wrath And Glory, New Leaf Press, Green Forest, AR, 2001, p.31.


Henry M. Morris

"previous commentaries on Revelation take...this great city, Babylon...to be Rome, or New York, or some other city, but not Babylon. What is the explanation for this reluctance to believe that John meant Babylon when he wrote 'Babylon'?"

Henry Morris, The Revelation Record, Tyndale House Publishers, Wheaton, IL, 1983, p.323.

 

Henry M. Morris

"Even at the time John was writing [Revelation, 95 AD], Babylon was still a viable city...At the very least,, it would be confusing to John's first century readers, as well as to later generations, for him to write so much about Babylon when he really meant Rome (Paul was not afraid to speak directly about Rome in his writings, so why should John be?)..."

Henry Morris, The Revelation Record, Tyndale House Publishers, Wheaton, IL, 1983, p.323.

 

Henry M. Morris

"...to say that spiritual Babylon is either Rome or the Roman Catholic Church is to grossly underestimate the age long global impact of this great mystery, Babylon the Great. Babylon is the mother of all the harlots and abominations of the earth."

Henry Morris, The Revelation Record, Tyndale House Publishers, Wheaton, IL, 1983, p.332.

 

Henry M. Morris

"Babylon may have seemed weak and impotent in John's day, but she was not dead."

Henry Morris, The Revelation Record, Tyndale House Publishers, Wheaton, IL, 1983, p.325.

 

Henry M. Morris

...in our day, Babylonia [Empire] is almost forgotten. Yet...the Bible indicates that its great capital city will one day again be the capital of a world empire."

Henry Morris, The Revelation Record, Tyndale House Publishers, Wheaton, IL, 1983, p.332.

 

Henry M. Morris

"Babylon, indeed, will be permanently destroyed...but this has not happened yet...This, however, will require that Babylon somehow be restored to its former magnificence and prominence."

Henry Morris, The Revelation Record, Tyndale House Publishers, Wheaton, IL, 1983, p.332.

 

Henry M. Morris

" Whatever may prove to be the exact sequence of events, Babylon will surely be rebuilt."

Henry Morris, The Revelation Record, Tyndale House Publishers, Wheaton, IL, 1983, p.349.

 

Henry M. Morris

" Babylon will indeed be resurrected as a great city, capital of a worldwide empire...She has never actually died, even in a physical sense, and the great prophecies of her utter desolation in Isaiah and Jeremiah have never yet been really fulfilled. But they will be!”

Henry Morris, The Revelation Record, Tyndale House Publishers, Wheaton, IL, 1983, p.340.

 

Paul Lee Tan

"Babylon was never destroyed—it only declined…[it] always had at least some inhabitants. The prophecies of Isaiah and Jeremiah relative to its destruction have yet to be fulfilled...We may interpret these prophecies under the hermeneutical principle of Double Reference...Babylon will be built up to be a world commercial and political center.

Paul Lee Tan, A Pictorial Guide To Bible Prophecy, Bible Communications,  Inc., Dallas, TX, 1991, p.137, 140.

 

Grant Jeffrey

The Bible foretold that Babylon would rise again in the last days to become a center of the Antichrist’s satanic power in the Middle East. 

Grant Jeffrey, The Prince of Darkness, Frontier Research Publication, 1994, p. 215.

 

 

7. Euphrates River. Prominent in the End Time Eastern Leg

Revelation 9, 16

 

8. The 2 Witnesses come from heaven into the Eastern Leg.

Revelation 11

 

9. The Kings of the East march into the Eastern Leg.

Revelation 16

 

10. The Kings of the Earth march into the Eastern Leg.

Zechariah 12; Joel 3; Revelation 16 & 19

 

11. The Antichrist invades the Eastern Leg.

Revelation 16

 

12. Christ returns to the earth & sets His foot down... Where?...

Zechariah 14:4





ABOVE: Roman Empire 25 years BEFORE the birth of Christ.

Note the Eastern Leg all the way to Mesopotamia.


BELOW: Turkey, the historic "bridge-nation" between Europe & the Mid-East.

As such Turkey is the key to linking the West-East "Legs" of the coming Revived Roman Empire.