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NOTES: the Inhabitants of Babylon?

back to Babylon To Be Rebuilt

BABYLON 2500-year TIMELINE OF INHABITANTS

(more extensive notes follow at end)


539 BC 1
Babylon captured by Persians but not destroyed; key Persian city for many years.

Babylon lost its political supremacy but retained its place as a cultural 
and commercial capital.

522-486 BC 2
Persian King Darius builds his palace at Babylon.

482 BC 3
Babylon revolted and Persian king Xerxes I destroyed Babylon's fortifications and the 
temples fell into disuse.

482-331 4
Still, Babylon continued to flourish within the Persian Empire.

331 BC 5
Alexander the Great's plan for Babylon to become his empire-capital was cut short by 
his death at Babylon in 323 BC, but building projects were completed.

Thereafter [Cyrus's capture of Babylon] Babylon experienced a slow decline. 
Alexander the Great died there, and long after the exile the city was still home 
to a sizable Jewish population.
Archaelological Study Bible, 2005, Zondervan Corporation, Grand Rapids, MI, p. 1077.

323 BC 6
Babylon lost its prestige with the Seleucid kings that followed Alexander.

305 BC 7
Babylon's prestige reduced by founding of the new city, Seleucia.

274 BC 8
Antiochus I made Seleucia the Royal City and ordered that the civilian population of Babylon be moved there. Still, a remnant of people still inhabited Babylon.

225-223 B.C 9
Regular offerings were still made to Babylonian gods in their own shrines at Babylon.

175-164 B.C 10
Babylon received a gymnasium and Greek theatre, later enlarged by the Parthians.

126 BC 11
Ctesiphon became the political center, Seleucia remained the business and trading center, and Babylon continued as the religious center of Mesopotamia.

93 BC 12
The religious functions of Esagila, the Marduc Temple at Babylon, and a college of priests were still used for religious services.

40 BC 13
Jewish high priest Hyrcanus was taken captive to Babylon where there were "great numbers" of Jews.

24 BC 14
As the first century AD approached Babylon still had inhabitants, though Greek historian Strabo referred to it as "empty and desolate for the most part."

Late 1st century BC 15
Greek historian Diodorus Siculus indicated that only a small area of the city was still inhabited.

AD 23-79 16
Pliny (AD 23-79) suggested that Esagila [Marduc Temple at Babylon] was still in existence. Some of the Jews from Mesopotamia who were in Jerusalem on the Day Of Pentecost "undoubtedly lived in Babylon."

63 AD 17
Peter the Apostle wrote 1st Peter from Babylon

115 or 116 AD 18
...the Roman Emperor Trajan wintered in Babylon during his campaign against the
Parthians,where he found "mounds and stones and ruins.",

Mid second century AD 19
Greek geographer Pausanias writes that the temple of Bel (Marduk) and the walls were still standing, though most of the city was abandoned."

A.D. 164 20
Avidius Cassius burned the city

198 AD 21
Roman Emperor Septimius Severus found Babylon "completely abandoned" on his Parthian campaign.

200 AD 22
According to Roman Emperor Septimius Severus Babylon was deserted by AD 200, and was virtually lost until the 17th century, having been gradually buried beneath the sand.

227 AD 23
Parthia fell to Sassanian domination, but traces of the Parthian occupation have been found in the excavations of Babylon.

226-636 AD 24
People were still living on the debris of the ancient palaces.

500 AD 25
Babylonian Talmud, commentary on the Jewish law, was created by Jews in Babylon. Babylon was inhabited "only by Jews" (Theodoret).

After the 7th-Century Muslim conquest of Arabia, travellers visiting the area describe only ruins..

800-1200 AD 26
Only huts were left at Babylon, a condition that until the 12th century AD.

10th century AD 27
Hawkal, an Islamic geographer, noted, "Babel is a small village...and ruins of great edifices still remain."

The town of Al Jami'ayn becomes Hillah rising amidst the ruins of Babylon on the East bank of the Euphrates in the 10th-11th centuries.

1160 AD 28
Benjamin Bar Joanna reported ten thousand Jews living in the village of Al Hillah [within the coordinates of] Babylon and an active "Synagogue of Daniel" in Babylon.

1616 AD 29
Pietro della Valle noted the existance of "villagers" who were mining and selling Babylon's kiln-fired bricks.

1765 AD 30
Karsten Niebuhr found inscribed bricks at the mounds at Hillah, part of Babylon.

1780 and 1790 AD 31
Joseph de Beauchamp conducted early small excavations of the site, where he collected inscribed bricks, as did the workers.

1811-12, 1817 AD 32
C. J. Rich made the first accurate plan of the site of Babylon, and noted the removal of its bricks had taken a heavy toll on the archaeological site.

early 1800s AD 33
Thomas Maurice, a contemporary of Rich, lamented that the famous ancient walls of Babylon still remained a mystery.

first half 1800s AD 34
Several minor explorations of Babylon including mapping by Robert Ker Porter.

1827 AD 35
James S. Buckingham and Mellino made more surface explorations of Babylon.

1829 AD 36
British Captain Robert Mignan created the best early map, noting the habitation of Babylon by several Arab villages.

1846 AD 37
Henry Creswicke Rawlinson provided valuable research of the inscriptions of Babylon.

1850 AD 38
Henry Austen Layard after a short period abandoned his research of Babylon.

1852-54 AD 39
Fulgence Fresnel, Jules Oppert and Felix Thomas made the first systematic
excavations and published the first detailed map of Babylon and discovered the Persian (Elamite) inscriptions.

1879 AD 40
Hormuzd Rassam recovered the famous Cyrus Cylinder (giving Cyrus' account of his conquest of Babylon).

Latter part 1800's AD 41
The plundering Babylon's baked bricks continued.

1897-98 AD 42
E. Sachau conducted minor excavations. Hillah (Babylon) had 10,000 population.

1899-1917 AD 43
For nearly 18 years the German archaeologist Robert Koldewey carried out his archaeological work at Babylon with very little interruption. The immensity of the ancient city was discovered.  A great quantity of the bricks had already been removed and used elsewhere for building material. Koldewey’s excavations at Babylon were nevertheless highly successful, and stand as one of the great archaeological achievements of all time.

Robert Kodewey built and lived in an Expeditionhuas of the local style on the archaeological site of Babylon for the 18 year term of the excavations.
1912 AD 44
Robert Koldewey, German archaeologist, reports 4 Arabs villages located at Babylon.

1955-1968 AD 45
The Iraq Department of Antiquities began a touristic rebuilding process with the Arab village of Djumdjummah still located at Babylon.

1956 AD 46
German archaeologist Heinrich J. Lenzen studied the Greek theatre at Babylon.

In the late 1950s the Abd al-Karim Qasim-led Iraqi government (1958-19-63) began redeveloping the site...

1966 AD 47
H. J. Schmidt did specific site research of Babylon.

1978 AD 48
In 1979 the Iraq Antiquities Department began a major excavation and restoration project in Babylon.

1987 AD 49
Charles Dyer reported that he had personally seen the [Arab] village of Kweiresh in 1987 during a trip to Babylon.

2001 AD 50
By 2001 the Iraqi government had raised up a seminal tourist reconstruction of Babylon using original Babylon-bricks as the foundation.

2011 AD 51
Iraqi Babylon-Project Director Roberto Parapetti  affirmed that inhabitants live inside the boundaries of ancient Babylon's old city walls.

2015 AD 52
The World Monument Fund reports that inhabited communities within the boundaries of Babylon's ancient ruins are growing unchecked.

NOTES BABYLON TIMELINE OF INHABITANTS

back to Babylon To Be Rebuilt



1. 539 BC
... the Babylonians were defeated by the armies of Cyrus the Great, king of the Persians and Medes. The city of Babylon itself was not destroyed on that occasion in 539 BC, and in fact it continued to thrive and remain a key city of the Persian Empire for many years. It even became the richest satrapy in the empire and was regarded by Herodotus as the world's most splendid city.2
Dr. J. Paul Tanner, Daniel: Introduction Archaeol. Rediscovery of Babylon
May 14, 2002 App. P.1, Ancient Babylon: From Gradual Demise To Archaeological Rediscovery
http://paultanner.org/English%20Docs/Daniel/Introductory/App%20P%20-%20Archaeological%20Backgrd.pdf

Conquered by Cyrus ll in 539 B.C. Babylon lost its political supremacy but retained its place as a cultural and commercial capital.
Site Management Plan, Babylon Cultural Landscape and Archaeological City, Executive Summary, World Monuments Fund, 2015, New York, NY, p.9.
https://www.wmf.org/sites/default/files/article/pdfs/babylon-site-management-plan-excerpt.pdf

2. 522- 486 BC
Under the Persian King Darius, it even received some improvements. Georges Roux notes, "In Babylon, his winter residence, Darius built an arsenal, a palace for the crown prince and an apadana (i.e. a hall supported by columns, in the Persian
style) for his own palace."3
Tanner, Rediscovery of Babylon

3. 482 BC
Babylon revolted against the Persian king Xerxes I. This led to the destruction of
Babylon's fortifications and temples, as well as the melting down of the golden image of Babylon's primary deity, Marduk. Oates writes, Classical authors describe Xerxes' capture of the rebellious city after several months' siege, and
state that it was then sacked, its fortifications demolished; the great temple of Marduk [Esaliga-- Marduc Temple at Babylon] and others were burnt to the ground and the statue of Marduk carried away as a spoil of war.
Xerxes dealt severely with the Babylonians: the satrapy was abolished and incorporated with that of Assyria, the portions to the west being made into a separate unit. Great estates were confiscated and handed over to the Persians, and henceforth the country was ferociously taxed.4
The matter of the temples being destroyed, however, is subject to debate. Georges Roux writes, "Since Esagila [Marduc Temple at Babylon] and other sanctuaries are mentioned in later texts, it is probable that they fell into ruin
through lack of maintenance in the course of the following centuries rather than through violent destruction."5
Tanner, Rediscovery of Babylon

4. 5th Century BC
Despite the setback by Xerxes I, Babylon continued to flourish within the Persian Empire...
Tanner, Rediscovery of Babylon

5. 331 BC
Alexander the Great …wanted Babylon to become the capital of his new empire [His plans were cut short by his death in Babylon in 323 BC]...There was a Greek-Macedonian presence in Babylon ...a...well preserved theatre in the area...as well as a gymnasium
and an agora…
"Babylon“, Gwendolyn Leick, Mesopotamia: The Invention of the City, London, Penguin Books.,2001-02, pp. 271-274. 

After the defeat of Darius and the overthrow of the Persian supremacy, Babylon opened its gates to Alexander, who deemed the city not unworthy to become the capital of his mighty empire. On his return from India he wished to rebuild the temple of Belus, which had fallen into ruins, and in that great work he had intended to employ his army, now no longer needed for war. The priests, however, who had appropriated the revenues of this sacred shrine, and feared lest they would have again to apply them to their rightful purposes, appear to have prevented him from carrying out his design.
Discoveries among the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon, p. 427.
Author: Austen H. Layard
NEW-YORK:  G. P. PUTNAM & CO., 10 PARK PLACE. 1853.
http://www.gutenberg.org/files/39897/39897-h/39897-h.htm#fna_203

331 BC
Alexander the Great approached the city which was then so powerful and flourishing that he made preparation for bringing all his forces into action in case it should offer resistance, but the citizens threw open the gates and received him with acclamations.
Clarence Larkin, Dispensational Truth, 1918, Rev. Clarence Larkin Est., Glenside, PA, p. 142.



6. 323 BC
As a result of Alexander's untimely death, Babylon effectively saw the end of its role as a capital city. Babylon lost its prestige with the Seleucid kings that followed Alexander.
Tanner, Rediscovery of Babylon

Alexander the Great conquered Babylon and planned extensive reconstruction, but died before completing his work to rebuild the Tower of Babel. Babylon and it environs were inhabited throughout the Hellenistic [323-31 BC] and Parthian [247 BC-224 AD] periods. There is evidence that the area was populated, albeit sparsely, for centuries afterwards, as the city's fame receded and its ruins abandoned.
Site Management Plan, Babylon Cultural Landscape and Archaeological City, Executive Summary, World Monuments Fund, 2015, New York, NY, p.9-10.
https://www.wmf.org/sites/default/files/article/pdfs/babylon-site-management-plan-excerpt.pdf

7. 305 BC
Babylon's prestige was significantly reduced when Seleucus ordered the founding of a new city, Seleucia-on the-Tigris
Tanner, Rediscovery of Babylon 

The last blow to the prosperity and even existence of Babylon was given by Seleucus when he laid the foundation of his new capital on the banks of the Tigris (B. C. 322). Already Patrocles, his general, had compelled a large number of the inhabitants to abandon their homes, and to take refuge in the Desert, and in the province of Susiana. The city, exhausted by the neighbourhood of Seleucia, returned to its ancient solitude. According to some authors, neither the walls nor the temple of Belus existed any longer, and only a few Chaldæans continued to dwell around the ruins of their sacred edifices.
Discoveries among the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon, p. 428.
Author: Austen H. Layard
NEW-YORK:  G. P. PUTNAM & CO., 10 PARK PLACE. 1853.
http://www.gutenberg.org/files/39897/39897-h/39897-h.htm#fna_203

8. 274 BC
Antiochus I (281-261 BC), the successor to Seleucus, made Seleucia the Royal City about 275 or 274 BC, and then ordered that the civilian population of Babylon be moved there. Although a remnant of people still inhabited the ancient site of Babylon, the city's importance never recovered from this act. [But human activity continued at Babylon since] efforts were made by the Macedonian rulers to revive the half-ruined city....Antiochus I calls himself 'provider of Esagila [Marduc Temple at Babylon] ...
Tanner, Rediscovery of Babylon

293 BC
During the subsequent was of [Alexander's] generals Babylon suffered much and finally came under the power of Seleucus, who, prompted by ambition to build a Capital for himself, founded Seleucia in its neighborhood...This rival city gradually drew off the inhabitants of Babylon...
Clarence Larkin, Dispensational Truth, 1918, Rev. Clarence Larkin Est., Glenside, PA, p. 142.



9. 225-223 B.C
Seleucus III (225-223 B.C.) shows that regular offerings were still made to
a number of Babylonian gods in their own shrines. Remains of Hellenistic architecture were discovered on the mound of Bâbil and on the site of Nebuchadnezzar's palace.
Tanner, Rediscovery of Babylon

10. 175-164 B.C
Antiochus IV (175-164 B.C.) – the king who did the most to propagate the Greek culture –Babylon received a gymnasium and a remarkable Greek theatre ["suggesting a sizable population", Dyer, p.125] , later enlarged by the Parthians.
Tanner, Rediscovery of Babylon

11. 126 BC
After the Parthians conquered Babylonia in 126 BC, the Seleucid kingdom was greatly reduced.11 At that time, Artabanus II assumed control over the Tigris-Euphrates valley, and Babylon remained under Parthian control for quite some time (except for two brief periods of Roman occupation, Trajan and Severus)...
Tanner, Rediscovery of Babylon

Ctesiphon became the political center, Seleucia remained the business and trading center, and Babylon continued as the religious center of Mesopotamia.
Charles H. Dyer, The Rise Of Babylon, 1991, Tyndale House, Wheaton, IL,p.126.

12, 93 BC
Oates reports that the religious functions of Esagila [Marduc Temple at Babylon] and a college of priests (the 'Anu-Enlil priesthood')
were still operative late in the Seleucid period. Furthermore, "A text of 93 BC reveals that at least parts of
Esagila [Marduc Temple at Babylon] were at that time still used for religious services"
Tanner, Rediscovery of Babylon

13. 40 BC
Jewish high priest Hyrcanus was taken captive by the king of Parthia, who later “set him free from his bonds, and gave him a habitation at Babylon, where there were Jews in great numbers” Josephus, Antiquities Of The Jews, 15.2.2.

14. 24 BC
There was some continuance of a Babylonian city and people even until the first century AD, though of very little importance...Strabo (a Greek geographer and historian writing about 24 BC) described Babylon as empty and desolate for the most part.
Tanner, Rediscovery of Babylon 

early first century AD
...Strabo speaks of [Babylon] being to a great extent deserted. Nevertheless the Jews left from the Captivity still resided there in large numbers...
Clarence Larkin, Dispensational Truth, 1918, Rev. Clarence Larkin Est., Glenside, PA, p. 142.

15. Late in the 1st century BC
Diodorus Siculus (80 BC – ca. 15 BC), a Greek historian who authored the
universal history Bibliotheca historica late in the 1st century BC, indicated that Esagila [Marduc Temple at Babylon] along with the royal palaces had sunk into ruins and that only a small area of the city was still inhabited. 

"In the time of Augustus, the city is said to have been entirely deserted, except by a few Jews who still lingered amongst the ruins.”
Discoveries among the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon, p. 428.
Author: Austen H. Layard
NEW-YORK:  G. P. PUTNAM & CO., 10 PARK PLACE. 1853.
http://www.gutenberg.org/files/39897/39897-h/39897-h.htm#fna_203

16. AD 23-79
Pliny (AD 23-79), however, suggested that Esagila [Marduc Temple at Babylon] was still in existence
Tanner, Rediscovery of Babylon

The New Testament likewise gives evidence that many Jews lived in and near Babylon in the first century A.D. On the day of Pentecost a large number of Jews were gathered in Jerusalem...among them...'residents of Mesopotamia' (Acts 2:9). Some of these Jews undoubtedly lived in Babylon.
Charles H. Dyer, The Rise Of Babylon, 1991, Tyndale House, Wheaton, IL,p.127.
Charles H. Dyer, The Rise Of Babylon, 1991, Tyndale House, Wheaton, IL,p.126.

17. 63 AD
PETER IN BABYLON wrote 1st Peter: “The place of writing was Babylon. Some feel that the mention of Babylon in this epistle is a symbol for Rome, but there is no reason to ignore the literal interpretation of this word. At this point in time, Babylonia was the center of Judaism outside the Land; it is also the place where the Babylonian Talmud developed. And, since Peter was the Apostle to the Circumcision, it makes perfect sense tht he would have traveled to Babylonafter he left the Land. He literally wrote the letter from Babylon, the center of Judaism outside the Land.
Arnold Fruchtenbaum, 2 Peter, Ariel’s Bible Commentary, The Messianic Jewish Epistles, Ariel Ministries, 2005, p.384. 1320/384

60 AD
...it was from Babylon that Peter wrote his Epistle (1 Pet. 5:13)...
Clarence Larkin, Dispensational Truth, 1918, Rev. Clarence Larkin Est., Glenside, PA, p. 142.

18. 115 or 116 AD
...the Roman Emperor Trajan wintered in Babylon during his campaign against the
Parthians, though he found little there except for "mounds and stones and ruins.",
[Trajan occupied Babylon briefly taking control of it from the Parthians. Yet, below in AD 227, "traces of the Parthian occupation have been found in the excavations of Babylon", and since the Romans were only brief interlopers in the Parthian control of Babylon, then Babylon was inhabited by Parthians; my deduction]
Tanner, Rediscovery of Babylon 

Still, however, a part of the population appears to have returned to their former seats, for in the early part of the second century of the Christian era we find the Parthian king, Evemerus, sending numerous families from Babylon into Media to be sold as slaves, and burning many great and beautiful edifices still standing in the city.
Discoveries among the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon, p. 428.
Author: Austen H. Layard
NEW-YORK:  G. P. PUTNAM & CO., 10 PARK PLACE. 1853.
http://www.gutenberg.org/files/39897/39897-h/39897-h.htm#fna_203

19. Mid second century AD
...Dyer, however, reports that Pausanias had written that the temple of Bel (Marduk) and the walls were still standing, though most of the city was abandoned."
Tanner, Rediscovery of Babylon

20. A.D. 164
Avidius Cassius burned the city
Tanner, Rediscovery of Babylon

21. 198
Septimius Severus passed through the region on his Parthian campaign of 198 the site was completely abandoned" [Yet, below in AD 227, "traces of the Parthian occupation have been found in the excavations of Babylon", and the Romans were only brief interlopers in the Parthian control of Babylon]
Tanner, Rediscovery of Babylon; (Geoffrey W. Bromiley, ed., The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Pub. Co., 1979-1988)

22. 200 AD
According to Septimius Severus (Roman Emperor from AD 193–211), the site was deserted by AD 200. Subsequently, the site of Babylon remained virtually
lost until the 17th century, having been gradually buried beneath the sand of the desert and the silt of the valley.
Tanner, Rediscovery of Babylon

23. 227 AD
The Parthian kingdom finally fell under Sassanian domination...traces of the Parthian occupation have been found in the excavations of Babylon (as well as numerous other sites in southern Iraq).
Tanner, Rediscovery of Babylon

24. 226-636 AD
... people were still living on the debris of the ancient palaces.
Tanner, Rediscovery of Babylon

25. 500 AD
Babylonian Talmud, commentary on the Jewish law, was created by Jews  in Babylon.
[Nehardea Jewish Babylonia acadamy Nehardea's location inside Iraq
Coordinates: 33°25'11?N 43°18'45?E
This was the synagogue called "Shaf we-Yatib," to which there are several references dating from the third and fourth centuries
 Two sentences in which Nahman designates Nehardea as "Babel" have been handed down ... Sheshet also dwelt there temporarily (Ned. 78a). According to a statement dating from the 4th century, an amora heard in Nehardea certain tannaitic sentences which had until then been unknown to scholars... Nehardea always remained the residence of a certain number of learned men, ... About the middle of the 4th century the famous scholar ?ama was living at Nehardea; ...
Toward the end of the 4th and at the beginning of the 5th century Nehardea again became a center of Babylonian Judaism
Other scholars of the 4th and 5th centuries who are mentioned in the Talmud as natives of Nehardea are [list 5]
Mar R. ?anina is mentioned, among the earliest geonim of Pumbedita, as residing at Nehardea at the time of Muhammad. This is the last reference in Jewish history to Nehardea.
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/47713/Babylonian-Talmud
http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Talmud
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nehardea

The Talmudic Academies in Babylonia, also known as the Geonic Academies, were the center for Jewish scholarship and the development of Halakha from roughly 589 to 1038 CE
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talmudic_Academies_in_Babylonia

...there is no reason to question their [Jews whose remnants have been uncovered at Babylon] having belonged to the descendants of those Jews who were carried captive by Nebuchadnezzar to Babylon and the surrounding cities. These strangers appear to have clung with a tenacity peculiar to their race to the land of their exile. We can trace them about Babylon from almost the time of their deportation down to the twelfth century of the Christian era, when the Hebrew traveller, Benjamin of Tudela, wandered over the regions of the East and among the cities of the captivity to seek the remnant of his ancient nation. ...They had celebrated schools in many cities of Assyria and Chaldæa.

As early as the third century Hebrew travellers visited Babylon, and some of them have left records of the state of their countrymen. The Babylonian Talmud, compiled in the beginning of the sixth century, contains many valuable notices of the condition of the Jewish colonies in Babylonia, and enumerates more than two hundred Babylonian towns then under the Persian rule, inhabited by Jewish families. In manuscripts of the eighth and ninth centuries we have further mention of these colonies.

In the twelfth century, Benjamin of Tudela found no less than twenty thousand Jews dwelling within twenty miles of Babylon, and worshipping in the synagogue, built, according to tradition, by the prophet Daniel himself. In Hillah ["Amidst the heaps that marked the site of Babylon herself there rose the small town of Hillah", Layard's journal, 1853, p.428] alone were ten thousand persons and four synagogues...
 Discoveries among the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon, p. 416-19.
Author: Austen H. Layard
NEW-YORK:  G. P. PUTNAM & CO., 10 PARK PLACE. 1853.
http://www.gutenberg.org/files/39897/39897-h/39897-h.htm#fna_203

mid-fifth century AD
...Theodoret speaks of Babylon as being inhabited only by Jews, who had still three Jewish Universities, and in the las year of the same century the "Babylonian Talmud" was issued, and recognized as authoritative by the Jews of the whole world.
Clarence Larkin, Dispensational Truth, 1918, Rev. Clarence Larkin Est., Glenside, PA, p. 142.

In the beginning of the seventh century, at the time of the Arab invasion, the ancient cities of Babylonia were “a desolation, a dry land, and a wilderness.” Amidst the heaps that marked the site of Babylon herself there rose the small town of Hillah.
Discoveries among the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon, p. 428.
Author: Austen H. Layard
NEW-YORK:  G. P. PUTNAM & CO., 10 PARK PLACE. 1853.
http://www.gutenberg.org/files/39897/39897-h/39897-h.htm#fna_203

After the 7th-Century Muslim conquest of Arabia, travellers visiting the area describe only ruins.
BBC, By Paul Cooper, 20 April 2018
http://www.bbc.com/culture/story/20180419-saddam-disney-for-a-despot-how-dictators-exploit-ruins

26. 800-1200 AD 25
By the Arabic Middle Ages nothing but huts were left at Babylon, a condition that continued until the twelfth century of our era." (p. 297. C.W. Ceram. Gods, Graves and Scholars, The Story of Archaeology. New York. Alfred A. Knopf. 1951, 1961)

27. 10th century AD
Hawkal, an Islamic geographer, was one of the first to "rediscover" the
ancient site of Babylon and describe its remains. He noted, "Babel is a small village, but the most ancient in all Irak. The whole region is denominated Babel from this place. The kings of Canaan [he means Chaldea] resided there; and ruins of great edifices still remain.
Tanner, Rediscovery of Babylon 917 AD

Ibu Hankel [could be "Hawkai" above?] mentions Babylon as an insignificant village, but still in exestence.
Clarence Larkin, Dispensational Truth, 1918, Rev. Clarence Larkin Est., Glenside, PA, p. 142.

“Babylon continued to be inhabited in some form or other as late as AD 1000.”
John F. Walvoord, The Nations In Prophecy, Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, MI, 1967, p.58. (Walvoord believes a rebuilt Babylon is a possibility)

THE IRAQI TOWN OF HILLAH SPRUNG UP FROM THE SITE AND RUINS OF BABYLON

1. In the 10th century, the town of Al Jami'ayn was founded on the eastern bank of the Euphrates. Encyclopedia Britannica; https://www.britannica.com/place/Al-Hillah

2. In 1101 AD a new town, Hillah, was founded near Al Jami'ayn.

Encyclopedia Britannica; https://www.britannica.com/place/Al-Hillah

3. The location of that town [Al Jami'ayn, on the East bank] is in modern-day Hillah now. Encyclopedia Britannica; https://www.britannica.com/place/Al-Hillah

4. "Amidst the heaps that marked the site of Babylon herself [mostly on the East Bank] there rose the small town of Hillah." AUSTIN HENRY LAYARD, Discoveries among the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon, NEW-YORK:  G. P. PUTNAM & CO., 10 PARK PLACE, 1853, Pg 428.

5." Hillah may contain about eight or nine thousand inhabitants [1853]. ... The houses, chiefly built of bricks taken from the ruins of ancient Babylon ..." Austen Henry Layard, Discoveries among the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon, NEW-YORK:  G. P. PUTNAM & CO., 10 PARK PLACE. 1853, p. 395. 

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/39897/39897-h/39897-h.htm#fna_203

6. During the 18th century, the town became an administrative center in the Ottoman Empire. ) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hillah#Birth_of_Hillah;

(Another Source: http://looklex.com/e.o/hillah.htm)

(see also, Encyclopedia Britannica; https://www.britannica.com/place/Al-Hillah )

7. Hillah’s population is estimated at 364,700 in 1998, but today the Hillah “Babil-Government” district has a population of 1.73 million. (cmp. Tulsa, 401,000; OKC 3.93 ml, Dallas, 1.3 ml)


The city [Al-Hillah] was founded in the 10th century as Al-Jamiayn (“Two Mosques”) on the east bank of the Euphrates. In the 12th century a new city was founded opposite on the west bank and in 1102 was called Al-Hillah...The ruins of the ancient city of Babylon are nearby. Pop. (2003 est.) 350,000.

The Encyclopedia Britannica, https://www.britannica.com/place/Al-Hillah



Frank S. DeHass (former U.S. Consul in Palestine), refers to "Hilleh, modern Babylon", in this statement:
"The most conspicuous object on the plain of Shinar, about seven miles south-west of Hilleh, modern Babylon, is Birs-Nimroud, and all that remains of the famous Tower of Babel, the oldest historic monument of man....There can be no doubt touching the identity of this tower...The Greeks called it Borsippa, or 'Tower of Tongues,' only another name for Babel...it was rebuilt by Nebuchadnezzar, and dedicated to Jupiter Belus; and Herodotus describes this temple as situated at Borsippa, seven miles south-west from Babylon, the precise location of Birs-Nimroud; so there can be no doubt about the temple of Belus covering the site of the Tower of Babel."
Frank S. DeHass (former U.S. Consul in Palestine), Buried Cities Recovered, Explorations in Bible Lands, 1884, Bradley, Garretson & Co., Philadelphia & Brantford, Ont., p.501.


Even the following quote, whose author rejects the rebuilding of a literal Babylon, agrees that the modern Iraqi city of Hillah is to be equated with Babylon: "At the present time, Babylon, or more specifically, Hillah, in Iraq, is not even close to being worth considering as the subject of Revelation 17-18. Hillah is not a blobal religious hub or economic powerhouse. It does not rule over the kings of the earth...This view [of Babylon rebuilt] relies entirely on the idea of something that may happen in the future but which, at the present time, has little to no possibility of taking place on the immediate horizon. Does that mean it cannot happen or will never happen? Of course not. At least for now, though, it seems unlikely...Still, anything is possible." [Mr. Richardson also refers to "Hillah, the home of Babylon's ruins", p. 188]
Joel Richardson, Mystery Babylon, Unlocking The Bible's Greatest Prophetic Mystery, 2017, World Net Daily Books, Washington, D.C., p. 187-88.


1100 AD
...[Babylon] seems to have again grown into a town of some importance, for it was then known as the "Two Mosques." Shortly afterwards it was enlarged and fortified and received the name of Hillah, or "Rest."
Clarence Larkin, Dispensational Truth, 1918, Rev. Clarence Larkin Est., Glenside, PA, p. 142.


...the memory of what Babylon had been and where it was located is also found much earlier in the Arab-Islamic world, if then emerging with very different results. The eleventh-century historians and geographers (such as Ibn Hawqal, al-Istakhri, Mas'udi) knew correctly that facing Hilla was the village of Babil, perched atop the ruins of the ancient magnificent city (Babil was the city of the "Nimruds" and fir'awns [pharoahs], the seat of their reign, and the center of their magnificence, while nowadays it is a small village...In Babil are the remnants of a construction [recording] that it was in the days of old a large capital...
Mario Liverani, Imagining Babylon, 2016, Walter de Gruyter Inc., Boston/Berlin, sec. 1.3.
https://books.google.com/books?id=1IWHDAAAQBAJ&pg=PT38&lpg=PT38&dq=Hawkal+Islamic+geographer+babylon+hilla&source=bl&ots=3yjQH4AXRx&sig=ACfU3U2ycweomwj51LxVRPFJ9R6nt0Oi0w&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiTqY6ujsTgAhWHhVQKHYKRCUMQ6AEwDXoECAAQAQ#v=onepage&q=Hawkal%20Islamic%20geographer%20babylon%20hilla&f=false

28. 1160 AD
Benjamin Bar Joanna, a learned Jewish merchant of Tudela  Aragon, Spain, reported that ten thousand Jews lived in the village of Al Hillah six miles from Babylon; second, he noted that the Jews had an active "Synagogue of Daniel" in Babylon one mile from the ruins of Nebuchadnezzar's temple, probably the temple of Marduk.
Tanner, Rediscovery of Babylon

29. 1616 AD
Pietro della Valle correctly identified the site of Bâbil ...He noted that
villagers were mining and selling Babylon's kiln-fired bricks...
Tanner, Rediscovery of Babylon

30. 1765 AD
Karsten Niebuhr found numerous inscribed bricks lying around the great mounds at Hillah on the Euphrates, he deduced that the site was probably Babylon
itself.

31. 1780 and 1790
Joseph de Beauchamp (a distinguished French abbé and astronomer) was
the papal vicar-general at Baghdad. During the years 1780 and 1790, he made visits to the ruins of Babylon and conducted what is believed to be the first minor excavations of the site...He collected inscribed bricks...For the abbé was told by the workmen who were employed to dig for bricks in the Hillah
mound that they had found large, thick walls and rooms...[but the workers] simply wanted the hard, kiln-baked bricks...
Tanner, Rediscovery of Babylon
26 Wellard, By the Waters of Babylon, 23.

32. 1811-12, 1817 AD
By the time of C. J. Rich [early 1800s], this practice of carting off the bricks had taken a heavy toll on the archaeological site. Regarding the mound of Amran which included Esagila [Temple of Babylonian Marduc], Rich wrote, ". . . the greatest supplies have been and are now constantly drawn from it, they appear still to be abundant. But the operation of extracting the bricks has caused great confusion... made the first accurate plan of the site of Babylon (which was published in 1815).

33. early 1800s
Thomas Maurice, a contemporary of Rich, lamented that the famous ancient walls of Babylon still remained a mystery: . . . although we have doubtless ascertained the site, and from evidence both external and internal, many of the public edifices of Babylon; yet the actual extent of the circumference of that great city, from the varying accounts of the ancient historians, remains still disputable, and must ever do so, unless the vestiges of its vast walls shall hereafter be accurately traced by still more assiduous local research. 27
Tanner, Rediscovery of Babylon

34. First half 1800s
Following the research of C. J. Rich, there were several minor explorations at the Babylon site in the first half of the 19th century. Robert Ker Porter, an English painter, mapped the ruins of Babylon in 1818, recorded his impressions, and illustrated them with romantic views of the ruins.
Tanner, Rediscovery of Babylon

35. 1827
James S. Buckingham and Mellino made further surface explorations of the site.
Tanner, Rediscovery of Babylon

36. 1829
Robert Mignan made soundings of the site. He cut a shaft into the site and removed a number of clay tablets, as well as an inscribed clay cylinder in situ. [Mignan created the best early map, noting the habitation of Babylon by several Arab villages].
Arab villages, map, "Ground Plans of the Remains at & near Babylon", Captain R. Mignan; Description: English: Map of the site of Babylon prior to its excavation later in the 19th century; Date October 1829; Source Ground Plan of the Remains at & near Babylon. In Travels in Chaldaea, including a journey from Bussorah to Bagdad, Hillah, and Babylon, performed on foot in 1827, published by Henry Colburn and Richard Bentley, London, 1829; Author Captain Robert Mignan (d. 1852);
Tanner, Rediscovery of Babylon
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Babylon_1829.jpg

37.
Henry Creswicke Rawlinson made some significant contributions to the decipherment of the Akkadian language utilized by the Babylonians—an achievement which would prove invaluable for archaeologists after him...
27 Maurice, Observations, 30.
Tanner, Rediscovery of Babylon

38.
Henry Austen Layard [Father of Assyriology]...Layard was able to take soundings at Babylon...but soon concluded that the place was not worth his time.
 28 Saggs, Babylonians, 15.
Tanner, Rediscovery of Babylon

39. 1852-54 AD
Fulgence Fresnel, Jules Oppert and Felix Thomas made the first systematic
excavations of Babylon in July-Nov of 1852. 29  ...[and] published the first
relatively detailed map of Babylon....[and discovered] that the third language of the Behistun inscription was Elamite [Persian].
Tanner, Rediscovery of Babylon

".... there is now the modern Arab town of Hillah and two villages besides..."
Benjamin Wills Newton, (quoting a letter to the author from a man from India who had visited Babylon) in Babylon: Its Revival And Final Desolation, Houlston & Wright, 1859, p. 44-45.

40. 1879 AD
Hormuzd Rassam...a native Christian from Mosul [Ninevah, himself a famous associate of Layard]... unearthed a large collection of business
documents of the house of Egibi and the famous Cyrus Cylinder
(giving Cyrus' account of his conquest of Babylon).
Tanner, Rediscovery of Babylon.

41. Latter part 1800's AD
The plundering of the ruins of Babylon continued to increase; in addition to the         baked bricks, the locals also took stone monuments, which they burned for gypsum . . . . The destruction of the ruins did not end, . . . , and many important buildings were so thoroughly destroyed it was later impossible to identify their ground plans.
30 Klengel-Brandt, 252.
Tanner, Rediscovery of Babylon

42. 1897-98 AD
E. Sachau (minor excavations)
Tanner, Rediscovery of Babylon 

1898 AD
...Hillah contained about 10,000 inhabitants, and was surrounded by fertile lands, and abundant date groves stretched along the banks of the Euphrates.
Clarence Larkin, Dispensational Truth, 1918, Rev. Clarence Larkin Est., Glenside, PA, p. 142.

43. 1899-1917 AD
For nearly 18 years [Robert Koldewey, German archaeologist] carried out his archaeological work at Babylon with very little interruption...[he recovered] Ishtar gate in 1902...The outer walls of the temple of Esagila [Marduc god] were identified during ... 1910-1911...eight major city gates [dedicated to deities...the summer palace of Nebuchadnezzar.. the remains of the fabled Babylonian]....the immensity of the ancient city that had to be considered, and the mounds themselves were widely scattered.35 Joan Oates has pointed out that the ruins of Babylon extend over an area of some 850 hectares and constitute the largest ancient settlement in Mesopotamia.36 By way of comparison, greater Nineveh is about 750 hectares, and the mound of Ur only 55.... A great quantity of the bricks had already been removed and used elsewhere for building material before the archaeologists even arrived....Koldewey’s excavations at Babylon were
nevertheless highly successful, and stand as one of the great archaeological achievements of all time.
Tanner, Rediscovery of Babylon
31 "Koldewey, Robert" Encyclopædia Britannica Online. <http://www.eb.com:180/bol/topic?idxref=
254430> [Accessed 12 December 1999].
32 André Parrot, Babylon and the Old Testament, trans. B. E. Hooke (New York: Philosophical Library,
Inc., 1958), 21.
33 Albert Campdor, Babylon, trans. and adapted by Elsa Coult (New York: Putnam, 1958), 145.
Tanner, Rediscovery of Babylon

Major excavations were conducted by the German architect R. Koldewey (1855–1925) from 1899 to 1917. These excavations revealed data for all levels of occupation from Old Babylonian (1894–1595 B.C.E.) to Parthian times (250 B.C.E.–224 C.E.)
http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0003_0_01806.html

...Kodewey and Andrae built and lived in 'mission houses' of the local style, while the preceding generations of excavators had lived in cities, from where they came and went...
Mario Liverani, Imagining Babylon, 2016, Walter de Gruyter Inc., Boston/Berlin.
https://books.google.com/books?id=1IWHDAAAQBAJ&pg=PT38&lpg=PT38&dq=Hawkal+Islamic+geographer+babylon+hilla&source=bl&ots=3yjQH4AXRx&sig=ACfU3U2ycweomwj51LxVRPFJ9R6nt0Oi0w&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiTqY6ujsTgAhWHhVQKHYKRCUMQ6AEwDXoECAAQAQ#v=onepage&q=Hawkal%20Islamic%20geographer%20babylon%20hilla&f=false
44. 1912 AD
Robert Koldewey, German archaeologist, reports 4 Arabs villages located at Babylon.
p. 13. cf. map titled "Babylon." Barthel Hrouda. Robert Koldewey, Das wieder erstehende Babylon. Verlag C. H. Beck. Munchen. 1990. ISBN 3-406-31674-3.

45. 1955-1968 AD
the Iraq Department of Antiquities carried out further clearances... restoring the Emakh temple.. the Ishtar Gate, the Processional Way and the palace complex. ... built a half-size model of the complete Ishtar Gate... palace of Nebuchadnezzar with its massive throne room (some 180 ft. x 197 ft.)... A museum and rest house have been built on the site, which is also partially covered by the [Arab] village of Djumdjummah at the southern end.
Tanner, Rediscovery of Babylon

46, 1956 AD
Under Heinrich J. Lenzen, the German Archaeological Institute conducted
further brief investigations... at the Greek theatre.40
Tanner, Rediscovery of Babylon

In the late 1950s the Abd al-Karim Qasim-led Iraqi government (1958-19-63) began redeveloping the site...
Site Management Plan, Babylon Cultural Landscape and Archaeological City, Executive Summary, World Monuments Fund, 2015, New York, NY, p.11.
https://www.wmf.org/sites/default/files/article/pdfs/babylon-site-management-plan-excerpt.pdf

47. 1966 AD
H. J. Schmidt carried out investigations at the site of Etemenanki.
Tanner, Rediscovery of Babylon

48. 1978 AD
On the government’s recommendation, in 1979 the Antiquities Department began a major excavation and restoration project in Babylon,
Iraq Antiquities Department, “Babylon Revival” Project: Improvement of the Babylon Site: Babylon;", Director: Roberto Parapetti

...it was Saddam Hussein (1979-2003) ...[who] rebuilt Babylon's ruins as a means of promoting national pride and his self-image...
Site Management Plan, Babylon Cultural Landscape and Archaeological City, Executive Summary, World Monuments Fund, 2015, New York, NY, p.11.
https://www.wmf.org/sites/default/files/article/pdfs/babylon-site-management-plan-excerpt.pdf

49. 1987 AD
Charles Dyer reported that he had personally seen the [Arab] village of Kweiresh in 1987 during a trip to Babylon. At that time, "it was located next to the reconstruction of Nebuchadnezzar's southern palace and just north of the Saddam Hussein Guest House"  
Charles H. Dyer, The Rise Of Babylon, 1991, Tyndale House, Wheaton, IL,p.130.

"This last portion [of Jeremiah 50:39, 'no more inhabited forever'] has not been fulfilled because there is a hotel there inside the old walls in which people live today." [this may be the "Sadaam Hussein Guesthouse" photo, Charles H. Dyer, The Rise Of Babylon, 1991, Tyndale House, Wheaton, IL,center photos].
Charles Pack, Questions and Answers on Bible Prophecy, 1978, Thy Kingdom Come Ministries,
Tulsa, OK, p.6. (Charles Pack made 3 trips to Babylon)

"Today, thousands of workers are reconstructing the ancient city of Babylon in the middle of the Iraqi desert."
World Press Review, February, 1990 edition, as quoted in Joseph Chambers, A Palace For The Antichrist, 1996, [recording the author's personal visit to Babylon in 1992], New Leaf Press, Forest, AR, p.24.

“I can find no time in history when it can be said conclusively that Babylon ceased to exist. Her population has risen and fallen through the ages, but there has never been a time when the city has been completely abandoned... Babylon’s fortunes have declined, but the city has never been destroyed.”
Charles Dyer, The Rise of Babylon. Wheaton, Illinois: Tyndale House, 1991, p.130-131.


50. 2001 AD
In May of 2001, when this writer [Dr. J. Paul Tanner] last visited the site of Babylon, the Iraqi government was working diligently to reconstruct many of the walls and ancient buildings, and in other ways to make the site accessible to visitors wishing to stroll through these pathways of old.
Tanner, Rediscovery of Babylon

BABYLON MODERN SITE DAMAGE REPORT
https://eca.state.gov/files/bureau/babylondamagereport.pdf
damage assessments carried out between 2004 and 2009
The construction of new utility/parking areas and roads...at [U.S.] Camp Babylon

BABYLON MODERN SITE DAMAGE REPORT
https://eca.state.gov/files/bureau/babylondamagereport.pdf
damage assessments carried out between 2004 and 2009
The modern conference center and lakeside villas are also intrusive, but
less so. All of these modern intrusions have no association with the historical Babylon.


51. 2011 AD
Another of the more dire threats to the site has been unchecked  development inside the boundaries of the old city walls, enclosing nearly three square miles... causing trepidation among Iraqis who live along them now.
Project: Improvement of the Babylon Site: Babylon; Director: Roberto Parapetti

52. 2015 AD
The threats to Babylon include...communities within proposed site boundaries and buffers that are growing unchecked.
Site Management Plan, Babylon Cultural Landscape and Archaeological City, Executive Summary, World Monuments Fund, 2015, New York, NY, p.14.
https://www.wmf.org/sites/default/files/article/pdfs/babylon-site-management-plan-excerpt.pdf 

Defining the site's sources of significance was necessary...The SBAH approved the official title: "The Babylon Cultural Landscape and Archaeological City" and its implication that recent layers of history will figure in...Acknowledging the site's evolving as opposed to static significance represents a profound shift from previous interpretations ...The notion of a cultural landscape and the possibilities it embodies has become the topic of fruitful dialogue and debate......In the recent past, Babylon was defined by narrow historical periods ......The process of formulating an expanded definition encompassing the earliest archaeological remains up to the most recent activities, led to [the] renaming the site...This acknowledges Babylon as an evolving landscape, whose modern features figure in the management plan alongside the ancient ones....A re-envisaged Babylon fulfills UNESCO criteria for heritage significance (see Action Plan) while emphasizing contemporary Babylon's value both as a national icon in a time of recovery and as a much-needed source of livelihoods... [emphasis mine; here we see Babylon is proposed to have a future]
Site Management Plan, Babylon Cultural Landscape and Archaeological City, Executive Summary, World Monuments Fund, 2015, New York, NY, p.18-19.
https://www.wmf.org/sites/default/files/article/pdfs/babylon-site-management-plan-excerpt.pdf 

In Iraq, A Race To Protect The Crumbling Bricks Of Ancient Babylon, A U.S.-funded conservation project is shoring up the brick walls of the ancient city. The hope is that Babylon will qualify for UNESCO World Heritage status.; Jane Arraf, Posted on November 24, 2018,
https://www.houstonpublicmedia.org/npr/2018/11/24/669272204/in-iraq-a-race-to-protect-the-crumbling-bricks-of-ancient-babylon/

PARAMETERS OF BABYLON Define the Extent of Habitation of the City

When, therefore, Nineveh and Babylon were uncovered (at first topographically and then archaeologically) it opened a season of doubts and debates for and against making the measurements given by the classical authors [Herodotus, etc., etc.] agree with the remains visible on the ground. The operation of 'putting on a plan' the imaginary megalopoleis, which had meant nothing before the mid-nineteenth century in the absence of ancient points of reference to which the operation could be anchored, became possible after the archaelological discoveries.
Trying to superimpose the measurements quoted by the classical authors on the Babylonian and Assyrian areas surveyed topographically, it became clear that these measurements greatly suppassed the circuits of the walls which could be identified on the ground, and took in entire regions.
Instead of dismissing the information of the classical authors as exaggerated and legendary, a compromise solution was sought: the 'archaeological' cities were inserted inside the encircling walls of regional dimensions, with the advantage of also being able to include in 'great Nineveh' the sites of Khorsabad and Nimrud, from which most of the finds came (and therefore of being able to use the title of Nineveh for the popular volumes on far less famous sites), and as far as the more distant Arbela; and of being able to include in 'great Babylon' all the territory from Kish to Borsippa, including therefore the indispensable Tower, which presented itself much more clearly as a ruin at Birs Nimrud than at Babel.
...what was rejected at the scientific level had neverthless not ceased to flutter over the popularising pages...[but] now contradicted by the archaeological and topographical evidence. The same can be said for Babylon: 'great Babylon' stretching from Borsippa to Kish was abandoned by the archaelolgists in favour of the survey (already carried out by Rich) of the real Babylon, of which the walls and main mounds of ruins were emerging. The archaeologists therefore quickly dismissed the idea and concentrated on the reality which was appearing from the excavation and reconnaissance on the ground of the material remains.
The legend still had, however, several decades of life, on the part of both historians of antiquity and popular writers... 'great Babylon', endowed not only with her urban walls (the real ones, visible on the ground) but also by walls of regional dimensions as the classicists [Herodotus, et al] wished.
In the same way George Rawlinson, brother of the great patron of the Assyrian excavations, adopted (in his annotated translation of Herodotus) the idea that the walls enclosed an entire region, not just a city. In the famous history of ancient art by Beorges Perrot and Charles Chipiez, which came out in 1884, Babylon is described as a 'great entrenched camp' which included Babylon itself, Borsippa and Kutha...
The power of imagination and tradition proved stronger than that of direct evidence, and at the beginning of the twentieth century the problem still merited serious discussion. And much more recently [1960]...'ancient Babylon' as square and of regional size... to save the varacity of the classical authors: 'Perhaps at Nineveh there was an internal city distinct from the external one, in which case Diodorus could have been right.'...
'Great Babylon', though, was again to some extent, of topical interest with the publication of a text of Nebuchadnezzar II in which a wall to the north of Sippar, which goes from the bank of the Tigris to the bank of the Euphrates, is described as an external wall of the city...
Mario Liverani, Imagining Babylon, 2016, Walter de Gruyter Inc., Boston/Berlin, sec. 1.6, p.47.
https://books.google.com/books?id=1IWHDAAAQBAJ&pg=PT38&lpg=PT38&dq=Hawkal+Islamic+geographer+babylon+hilla&source=bl&ots=3yjQH4AXRx&sig=ACfU3U2ycweomwj51LxVRPFJ9R6nt0Oi0w&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiTqY6ujsTgAhWHhVQKHYKRCUMQ6AEwDXoECAAQAQ#v=onepage&q=Hawkal%20Islamic%20geographer%20babylon%20hilla&f=false

The exact size of ancient Babylon is not known. Modern explorers have been unable to trace the course and extent of the walls. All authorities both of ancient and recent times, agree that the city lay four-square, with the riber running diagonally through the midst. But the remains of the ancient ramparts do not sufficiently indicate the lines of circumvallation. The old historians, therefore, several of whom visited the city and were eyewitnesses of her greatness are the best, and, indeed, the only, sources of information. Herodotus declares the walls to have been fourteen miles in length on each side, or fifty-six miles in circumference. This would give an area of one hundred and ninety-six square miles. Ctesias, who also wrote from personal observation, fixes the length of the walls at ten and a half miles on each side, or forty miles in entire compass, giving an area of one hundred and ten square miles.
These are respectively the largest and the smallest extimates of the size of the city which have reached us from antiquity.
The writers and travelers who followed Alexander in his victorious career report the dimensions of Babylon as intermediate between the figures given by Herodotus and those of Ctesias.
The historian Rawlinson, after a careful review of all the facts, fixes the size of the city or inclosure within the walls at about one hundred square miles. This, though a much less area than is included in the modern cities of Paris or London, is far greater than the space covered by any other ancient city. Rome could have been two or three times inclosed within these walls, and Nineveh was hardly one-fifth as great in extent.
It must not be supposed, however, that this whole area of a hundred square miles or more was actually occupied with the buildings of the city. An open space all around was left inside of the walls, and even in the parts covered with edifices or devoted to streets there was doubtless much unoccupied ground. Orchards and gardens and parks would intervene here and there, and certain parts would be reserved for public or private improvements. It is believed that the city by the extent of space thus included within the walls, and not actually appropriated for building purposes, was rendered quit independent of outside support in case of invasion or siege; for the rich grounds which were not devoted to building could be made quickly available for gardens.
John Clark Ridpath, Cyclopaedia Of Universal History, Vol. 1, The Ancient World, 1885, Jones Brothers Publishing Co., Cincinnati, OH, Hunt & Eaton, NY, p. 255-56.
https://books.google.com/books?id=Yu5DAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA255&dq=extent+of+walls+of+ancient+babylon&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjUwMCIxMTgAhWan4MKHSeaB8EQ6AEIXTAJ#v=onepage&q=extent%20of%20walls%20of%20ancient%20babylon&f=false