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NOTES: the Arabs of Babylon

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It will never be inhabited or lived in
 from generation to generation;
Nor will the Arab pitch his tent there...
Isaiah 13:20

THIS PROPHECY HAS NEVER BEEN FULFILLED!


Stereographic Photo,
Arabs living at Babylon,
1899-1908
(the actual photo-documentation below)


Title: Typical Arab Village and Fort,
Lower Babylonian, Mesopotamia
Place: Asia
Iraq
Babylonia
Mesopotamia
Latitude: 33 00 00 N
Longitude: 044 00 00 E
Creator: Not Known
Contributor: Gifford M. Mast
Date Created and/or Issued: [Date not indicated]
Publication Information: Underwood & Underwood: an early producer and distributor of stereoscopic and other photographic images; publishing 25,000 stereographs a day by 1901; In 1920 stereograph production was discontinued.
Keystone-Mast Collection, UCR/California Museum of Photography, University of California at Riverside.
The inscription
on the
reverse side


"Lower Babylonia, Mesopotamia" on reverse side of photo above (note above that the actual location coordinates of the CITY of Babylon are given in the document information)
NOTES:

Picture (ABOVE)
Title: Typical Arab Village and Fort, Lower Babylonian. Mesopotamia
Underwood & Underwood. Collection
Dates: 1899-1908
Repository: Special Collections Research Center, University of Chicago Library,  1100 East 57th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637 U.S.A., Creator Not Known, Contributor Gifford M. Mast, Date Created and/or Issued[Date not indicated], Publication Information: Underwood & Underwood [an early producer and distributor of stereoscopic and other photographic images; publishing 25,000 stereographs a day by 1901; In 1920 stereograph production was discontinued; The company ceased business in the 1940s. ]
https://calisphere.org/item/ark:/13030/kt0j49r0vx/

The precise location coordinates for the picture are given as,
Babylonia
Mesopotamia
             Latitude: 33 00 00 N
             Longitude: 044 00 00 E


These compare with the actual location coordinates given for Hilla/Babylon (below),
ON GOOGLE EARTH (actual Latitude/Longitude on Google Earth)
WALL OF CITY OF BABYLON       32*41'  44*25'
ANCIENT RUINS OF BABYLON    32*32'  44*25'
BABYLON (rebuilding)                    32*32'  44*25
HILLA                                              32*31'  44*24


[Koldewey] made a map of the site, showing that it was inhabited by local Arabs, some of whom had erected villages (for which the German word is DORF), made of ancient Babylon's baked bricks, made by Nebuchadnezzar. He also lived on the site for several years, supervising the excavations (ca. 1900-1912).
(p. 13. cf. map titled "Babylon." Barthel Hrouda. Robert Koldewey, Das wieder erstehende Babylon. Verlag C. H. Beck. Munchen. 1990. ISBN 3-406-31674-3)

During the Sassanid period, A.D. 226-636, people were still living on the debris of the ancient palaces. By the Arabic Middle Ages nothing but huts were left at Babylon, a condition that continued until the twelfth century of our era.
(p. 297. C.W. Ceram. Gods, Graves and Scholars, The Story of Archaeology. New York. Alfred A. Knopf. 1951, 1961)

Robert Koldewey, German archaeologist, [in 1912] reports 4 Arabs villages living at Babylon— Kweiresh, Djumdjumma, Sindjar and Ananeh.
Robert Koldewey, The Excavations At Babylon, trans. Agnes S. Johns (London: Macmillan, 1914) p. 11-12

"Consequently, no plan of the ruins of Babylon could be drawn without including within their scope, not only Hillah, but [Arab villages] Jumjuma, Anana, and Tajeca, and (according to Rich and Mignan) Tahmasia. Tahmasia is a village on the western plain, six miles on the west of Hillah."
Benjamin Wills Newton, Babylon: Its Revival And Final Desolation, Houlston & Wright, 1859, p.39.

"Within the 21-square-mile archaeological city there are several modern [Arab] villages now such as Sinjar, Al-Jumjuma, and Anana."
Joseph Chambers, A Palace For The Antichrist, 1996, [recording the author's personal visit to Babylon in 1992], New Leaf Press, Forest, AR,   p.75.

General Chesney--"This portion of the country is occupied by an Arab tribe, who were actually encamped at the foot (i.e. of the Birs Nimroud [greatest of all the ruins ] on the N.W., or Hillah side of the ruins, when I was there."
[here he means N.W. foot of Birs Nimroud mound, on Hillah side of Euphrates]
Benjamin Wills Newton, Babylon: Its Revival And Final Desolation, Houlston & Wright, 1859, p. 42-43.

".... there is now the modern Arab town of Hillah and two villages besides......In 1835, when I was there, I saw marks of an Arab encampment which must have halted there for several weeks. When the Arabs make a long stay in any place, they erect mud pillars breast high, and hollowed out at the top for their horses to feed from, as from a manger. The remains of these pillars I saw...My attendant explained to me what they were"
Benjamin Wills Newton, (quoting a letter to the author from a man from India who had visited Babylon) in Babylon: Its Revival And Final Desolation, Houlston & Wright, 1859, p. 44-45.

[In the period A.D. 226-636] ... people were still living on the debris of the ancient palaces. By the Arabic Middle Ages [800-1200 AD] nothing but huts were left at Babylon, a condition that continued until the twelfth century of our era.
(p. 297. C.W. Ceram. Gods, Graves and Scholars, The Story of Archaeology. New York. Alfred A. Knopf. 1951, 1961)

British Captain Robert Mignan created the best early map, noting the habitation of Babylon by several Arab villages.
Arab villages, map, "Ground Plans of the Remains at & near Babylon", Captain R. Mignan; Description: English: Map of the site of Babylon prior to its excavation later in the 19th century; Date October 1829; Source Ground Plan of the Remains at & near Babylon. In Travels in Chaldaea, including a journey from Bussorah to Bagdad, Hillah, and Babylon, performed on foot in 1827, published by Henry Colburn and Richard Bentley, London, 1829; Author Captain Robert Mignan (d. 1852).

The Iraq Department of Antiquities carried out further clearances [1955-1968]... A museum and rest house have been built on the site, which is also partially covered by the [Arab] village of Djumdjummah at the southern end.
Dr. J. Paul Tanner, Daniel: Introduction Archaeol. Rediscovery of Babylon
May 14, 2002 App. P.1, Ancient Babylon: From Gradual Demise To Archaeological Rediscovery, http://paultanner.org/English%20Docs/Daniel/Introductory/App%20P%20-%20Archaeological%20Backgrd.pdf

[ In 1987] Charles Dyer reported that he had personally seen the [Arab] village of Kweiresh in 1987 during a trip to Babylon. At that time, "it was located next to the reconstruction of Nebuchadnezzar's southern palace and just north of the Saddam Hussein Guest House"  
Charles H. Dyer, The Rise Of Babylon, 1991, Tyndale House, Wheaton, IL,p.130. 

The following quotes are from the on-site exploration of Babylon by the great Assyrian-ruins archaeologist Austen Henry Layard, circa 1853...
Title: Discoveries among the Ruins of Nineveh and Babylon
Author: Austen H. Layard
NEW-YORK:  G. P. PUTNAM & CO., 10 PARK PLACE. 1853.
http://www.gutenberg.org/files/39897/39897-h/39897-h.htm#fna_203
 

It was the mound of Babel, better known to travellers as the Mujelibé, a name not now given to it by the Arab inhabitants of the surrounding country. This is the first great ruin seen on approaching ancient Babylon from the north. Beyond it long lines of palms hem in the Euphrates, which now winds through the midst of the ancient city.  (p. 389-90

From the principal people of Hillah  ["Amidst the heaps that marked the site of Babylon herself there rose the small town of Hillah", Layard's journal, 1853, p.428]... I received every help. Like most towns in this part of Turkey [Ottoman Empire], it is peopled by Arabs, once belonging to different tribes... (p.394

...the most important ruins on the site of Babylon. Half concealed among the palm trees on the eastern banks of the Euphrates above Hillah, are a few hamlets belonging to Arabs, who till the soil. (p. 396

We learn from ancient authors that the walls of the palaces of Babylon were painted with the figures of men and animals, and there can be no doubt that these enamelled bricks are from the walls of an edifice. Fragments of glass, Babylonian gems and cylinders, small bronze figures, and other relics of this nature are occasionally found on the mound by the Arabs, and are bought by the Jews of Hillah, who sell them again to European travellers. (p. 412

"Babylon was the first city in history. We want to work here because we love this city," says Haider Bassim, 29, an Iraqi [Arab] technician who grew up within the perimeter of the ancient city.
In Iraq, A Race To Protect The Crumbling Bricks Of Ancient Babylon, A U.S.-funded conservation project is shoring up the brick walls of the ancient city. The hope is that Babylon will qualify for UNESCO World Heritage status.; Jane Arraf, Posted on November 24, 2018, Copyright 2019 NPR
https://www.houstonpublicmedia.org/npr/2018/11/24/669272204/in-iraq-a-race-to-protect-the-crumbling-bricks-of-ancient-babylon/

...the building of [Saddam Hussein's luxury palace atop Mount Saddam [at Babylon] necessitated the removal of the [Arab] village of Kweiresh whose generational inhabitants were offered a meager recompense for relocation.
Site Management Plan, Babylon Cultural Landscape and Archaeological City, Executive Summary, World Monuments Fund, 2015, New York, NY, p.14.
https://www.wmf.org/sites/default/files/article/pdfs/babylon-site-management-plan-excerpt.pdf


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